Statistical information Mali 1994Mali

Map of Mali | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Mali in the World
Mali in the World

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Mali - Introduction 1994
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Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held.


Mali - Geography 1994
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Location: Western Africa, between Mauritania and Niger

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 1.24 million km²
Land: 1.22 million km²

Land boundaries: total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 25%
Forest and woodland: 7%
Other: 66%

Irrigated land: 50 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Geography
Note: landlocked


Mali - People 1994
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Population: 9,112,950 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.78% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Malian(s)

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.78% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 51.79 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 20.36 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.66 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of safe drinking water; poaching

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 106.2 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 45.91 years
Male: 44.29 years
Female: 47.57 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 17%
Male: 26%
Female: 9%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mali - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form

Former: French Sudan

Government type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region; Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: new constitution adopted in constitutional referendum in 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992); election last held in April 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL
Head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)

Legislative branch: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
National Assembly: elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (total 116) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William H. DAMERON III
From the us chancery: 2,130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [223] 225,470
From the us embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako
From the us mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
From the us FAX: [223] 228,059

Flag descriptionflag of Mali: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mali - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. In consultation with international lending agencies, the government has adopted a structural adjustment program for 1992-95, aiming at GDP annual growth of 4.6%, inflation of no more than 2.5% on average, and a substantial reduction in the external current account deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -6.1% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: -1.4% (1992 est.), accounts for 13.0% of GDP

Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 80%
By occupation services: 19%
By occupation industry and commerce: 1% (1981)
By occupation note: 50% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$376 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $330 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $682 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles
Partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1991 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05 (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
Note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948


Mali - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 750 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 90 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mali - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mali - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mali - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 33
Usable: 27
With permanentsurface runways: 8
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 5
With runways 1220-2439 m: 11

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mali - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Adrenaline


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