Statistical information Moldova 1994Moldova

Map of Moldova | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Moldova in the World
Moldova in the World

Moldova - Introduction 1994
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.

Moldova - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Europe, between Ukraine and Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 33,700 km²
Land: 33,700 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea


Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50%
Permanent crops: 13%
Meadows and pastures: 9%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 28%

Irrigated land: 2,920 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Moldova - People 1994
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Population: 4,473,033 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.38% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Moldovan(s)

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
Note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Languages: Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)
Note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 16.02 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 10.02 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.2 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 30.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.07 years
Male: 64.65 years
Female: 71.67 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.18 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Moldova - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica Moldoveneasca
local short form; none

Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new constitution in 1994

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: old Soviet constitution (adopted NA 1979) is still in effect but has been heavily amended during the past few years; a new constitution is expected in 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and CSCE documents

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990); election last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President SNEGUR was named executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991
Head of government: Prime Minister Andrei SANGHALI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April 1994 after elections for new legislature)

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defence Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Parliament: elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent by party NA; seats - (104 total) Agrarian-Democratic Party 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectual Bloc 11, Christian Democratic Popular Front 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CE (guest), CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON
From the us chancery: 1511 K Street NW, Room 329, Washington, DC
From the us telephone: 373 (2) 23-37-72 or 23-34-76
From the us embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us FAX: 7-0422-23-30-44

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Moldova - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Moldova has pushed ahead boldly on economic reform since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It introduced a convertible currency - the leu - in late 1993 that has remained stable against the dollar, removed price controls on most products, eliminated licenses and quotas on most imports and exports, and freed interest rates. In 1994, Moldova aims to privatize at least one-third of state enterprises, lower inflation to 1% per month, and reduce the budget deficit to 3.5% of GDP. Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, Moldova's economy is primarily based on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova, however, must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, and energy shortages have contributed to sharp production declines since the break-up of the Soviet Union. Activities by separatist groups in the Dniester region have held back economic development in that area. Foreign economic assistance has been a tangible plus for Moldova, whereas direct foreign investment has been lacking.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -4% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Moldova's principal economic activity; products are vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco

Industries: key products are canned food, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, refined sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1993)

Labor force: 2.05 million (1992)
By occupation agriculture: 34.4%
By occupation industry: 20.1%
By occupation other: 45.5% (1985figures)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: less than 1% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $108 million to outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993; over 70% of exports go to FSU countries
Commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals (1991)
Partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports: $145 million from outside the FSU countries (January-September 1993; over 70% of imports are from FSU countries
Commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer durables
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $325 million (end of 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Moldova - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.1 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,491 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Moldova - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Moldova - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Moldova - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26
Usable: 15
With permanentsurface runways: 6
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 5
With runways 10602439 m: 8
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Moldova - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: no official territorial claims by either Moldova or Romania, but nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova into Romania; potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over former southern and northern Bessarabian areas and Northern Bukovina ceded to Ukraine upon Moldova's incorporation into USSR

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

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