Statistical information Mongolia 1994Mongolia

Map of Mongolia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mongolia in the World
Mongolia in the World


Mongolia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Long a province of China Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power.

Mongolia - Geography 1994
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Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1.565 million km²
Land: 1.565 million km²

Land boundaries: total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast


Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 79%
Forest and woodland: 10%
Other: 10%

Irrigated land: 770 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Mongolia - People 1994
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Population: 2,429,762 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.61% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Mongolian(s)

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
Note: previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.61% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 33.04 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 6.99 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 43.4 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 66.16 years
Male: 63.9 years
Female: 68.52 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mongolia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form:
local long form: none
local short form; Mongol Uls

Former: Outer Mongolia

Government type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot; Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Dependent areas

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: adopted 13 January 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of the vote; other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
Head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA)

Legislative branch: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force
State Great Hural: elections first time held 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party 4, MSDP 1
Note: the People's Small Hural no longer exists

Judicial branch: Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
From the us chancery: 2,833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
From the us telephone: [976] (1) 329,095 through 329,606
From the us fax: (202) 298-9,227
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: address NA, Ulaanbaatar
From the us mailing address: Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region II, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96,521-0002
From the us FAX: [976] (1) 320-776

Flag descriptionflag of Mongolia: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mongolia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock - Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person in the world. In past years extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors. The Mongolian leadership is trying to make the transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through privatization and price reform, and is soliciting support from international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid, and the country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -1.3% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses; crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Industries: copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Industrial production growth rate: -15% (1992 est.), accounts for about 42% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
By occupation note: over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $355 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Partners: former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)

Imports: $501 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Partners: USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $16.8 billion (yearend 1990; 98.6% with USSR

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 150 (1 January 1993), 40 (1992), 7.1 (1991), 5.63 (1990), 3.00 (1989)
Note: the exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced June 1991 and was in force to the end of 1992

Mongolia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,740 kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,622 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mongolia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mongolia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million of GDP, 1% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mongolia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 81
Usable: 31
With permanentsurface runways: 11
With runways over 3659 m: fewer than 5
With runways 2440-3659 m: fewer than 20
With runways 1220-2439 m: 12

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Mongolia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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