Statistical information Myanmar 1994Myanmar

Map of Myanmar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Myanmar in the World
Myanmar in the World


Myanmar - Introduction 1994
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Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi has been under house arrest since 1989; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

Myanmar - Geography 1994
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 678,500 km²
Land: 657,740 km²

Land boundaries: total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September; less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands


Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 49%
Other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September)

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Myanmar - People 1994
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Population: 44,277,014 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.86% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Burmese (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 28.45 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 9.84 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 63.7 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 59.98 years
Male: 57.94 years
Female: 62.15 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.64 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 81%
Male: 89%
Female: 72%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Myanmar - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Union of Burma
Conventional short form:
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form; Myanma Naingngandaw

Former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine; Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988; National Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a new constitution

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
State Law and Order Restoration Council: military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force

Judicial branch: none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September 1988

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.
From the us chancery: 2,300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [95] (1) 82,055, 82,181
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
From the us mailing address: American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96,546
From the us FAX: [95] (1) 80,409

Flag descriptionflag of Myanmar: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Myanmar - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 70% private activity, mainly in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 30% state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and foreign trade. Government policy in the last five years, 1989-93, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Inflation has been running at 25% to 30% annually. Good weather helped boost GDP by perhaps 5% in 1993. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living standards.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP and 66% of employment (including fish and forestry; self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and timber account for 55% of export revenues

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (FY93 est.), accounts for 10% of GDP

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
By occupation agriculture: 65.2%
By occupation industry: 14.3%
By occupation trade: 10.1%
By occupation government: 6.3%
By occupation other: 4.1% (FY89est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$8.1 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $613.4 million (FY93)
Commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
Partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong

Imports: $1.02 billion (FY93)
Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
Partners: Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4 billion (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.2301 (December 1993), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989; unofficial - 105

Myanmar - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 65 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Myanmar - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Myanmar - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Myanmar - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 83
Usable: 78
With permanentsurface runways: 24
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 38

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km



Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 665,628 GRT/941,512 DWT, bulk 15, cargo 15, chemical 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 5, vehicle carrier 2

Ports and terminals

Myanmar - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,575 metric tons in 1993) and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production has doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

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