Statistical information Peru 1994Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Peru in the World
Peru in the World


Peru - Introduction 1994
top of page

Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.

Peru - Geography 1994
top of page

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1.28 million km²

Land boundaries: total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)


Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 21%
Forest and woodland: 55%
Other: 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

Peru - People 1994
top of page

Population: 23,650,671 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.86% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Peruvian(s)

Ethnic groups: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Religions: Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 25.55 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 54.2 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.62 years
Male: 63.44 years
Female: 67.9 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 85%
Male: 92%
Female: 29%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Peru - Government 1994
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form

Government type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Note: the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to 1990 mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) intended to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 existing departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima. Because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities. The 1993 Constitution maintains the regionalization process with some modifications that will limit the powers of the regional governments. The new constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990; election last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held NA April 1995; results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other 9.55%

Legislative branch: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police
Democratic Constituent Congress CCD: elections last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held April 1995); seats - (80 total) New Majority/Change 90 44, Popular Christian Party 8, Independent Moralization Front 7, Renewal 6, Movement of the Democratic Left 4, Democratic Coordinator 4, others 7; note - several major parties (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Popular Action) did not participate; with the next election the congress will be expanded to 100 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.
From the us chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
From the us telephone: [51] (14) 33-8,000
From the us fax: (202) 659-8,124
From the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), and San Francisco
From the us embassy: corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1991, Lima 1, Unit 3,822, or APO AA 34,031
From the us FAX: [51] (14) 31-6,682

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Peru - Economy 1994
top of page

Economy overview: The Peruvian economy is becoming increasingly market oriented, with major privatizations scheduled for 1994 in the mining and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide halted late that year, and output rose 2.4% in 1991. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch. In 1993 the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 6%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 13% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (1992 est.), accounts for 32% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 8 million (1992)
By occupation government and other services: 44%
By occupation agriculture: 37%
By occupation industry: 19% (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$2 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
Partners: US 25%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany

Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 30%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $22 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.180 (January 1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990), 0.0027 (1989)

Peru - Energy 1994
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 17.434 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 760 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Peru - Communication 1994
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Peru - Military 1994
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $500 million, about 2% of GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Peru - Transportation 1994
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 252
Usable: 222
With permanentsurface runways: 37
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 24
With runways 1220-2439 m: 54

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km



Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 142,425 GRT/229,746 DWT, bulk 3, cargo 10, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
Note: in addition, 6 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals

Peru - Transnational issues 1994
top of page

Disputes international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,800 hectares under cultivation in 1993; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it