Statistical information Portugal 1994Portugal

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Portugal in the World
Portugal in the World

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Portugal - Introduction 1994
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Background: Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its Brazilian colony in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades repressive governments ran the country. In 1974 a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC in 1985.


Portugal - Geography 1994
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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 92,080 km²
Land: 91,640 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,214 km, Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Elevation

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 6%
Meadows and pastures: 6%
Forest and woodland: 40%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 6,340 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Geography
Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar


Portugal - People 1994
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Population: 10,524,210 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.36% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Portuguese (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Languages: Portuguese

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 11.66 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 9.7 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.67 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 9.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.2 years
Male: 71.77 years
Female: 78.86 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 85%
Male: 89%
Female: 82%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Portugal - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form


Government type: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma; Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: (1) Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since 9 March 1986); election last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results - Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos MARQUES 3%
Head of government: Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6 November 1985)
Council of State: acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police
Assembly of the Republic Assembleia da Republica: elections last held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - PSD 50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, Center Democrats 4.4%, National Solidarity Party 1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%; seats - (230 total) PSD 136, PS 71, CDU 17, Center Democrats 5, National Solidarity Party 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justica)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sharon P. WILKINSON
From the us chancery: 2,125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [351] (1) 726-6,600 or 6,659, 8,670, 8,880
From the us fax: (202) 462-3,726
From the us consulates general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
From the us consulates: Ponta Delgada (Azores)
From the us embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
From the us mailing address: PSC 83, Lisbon; APO AE 9,726
From the us FAX: [351] (1) 726-9,109

Flag descriptionflag of Portugal: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Portugal - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Portugal's economy registered only 1.1% growth in 1992 and contracted by 0.4% in 1993, in contrast to the 4.5% average of the fast-paced 1986-90 period. Recession in the European Union, which accounts for 75% of Portugal's international trade, is the key factor in the downturn. The government's long-run economic goal is the modernization of Portuguese markets, industry, infrastructure, and workforce in order to catch up with productivity and income levels of the more advanced EU countries. Per capita income now equals only 55% of the EU average. The government's medium-term economic objective is to be in the first tier of EU countries eligible to join the economic and monetary union (EMU) as early as 1997. Economic policy in 1993 focused on reducing inflationary pressures by lowering the fiscal deficit, maintaining a stable escudo, moderating wage increases, and encouraging increased competition. Resumption of growth in the short run depends on the revival of growth in Europe as a whole, not a likely prospect in the immediate future.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.4% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 6.1% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small, inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops - grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 9.1% (1990; accounts for 40% of GDP

Labor force: 4,605,700
By occupation services: 45%
By occupation industry: 35%
By occupation agriculture: 20% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$27.3 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $17.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: cotton textiles, cork and paper products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances
Partners: EC 75.4%, other developed countries 12.4%, US 3.8% (1992)

Imports: $28 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, petroleum, textiles
Partners: EC 72%, other developed countries 10.9% less developed countries 12.9%, US 3.4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $20 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 176.16 (January 1994), 160.80 (1993), 135.00 (1992), 144.48 (1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989)


Portugal - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 26.4 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,520 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Portugal - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Portugal - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Portugal - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 65
Usable: 63
With permanentsurface runways: 37
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 10
With runways 1220-2439 m: 11

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity

Merchant marine: 61 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 962,293 GRT/1,779,855 DWT, bulk 3, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 3, liquified gas 2, oil tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 2
Note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience; although only one ship currently is known to fly the Portuguese flag on the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships will transfer to this subregister in a few years

Ports and terminals


Portugal - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Indonesia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: increasingly important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe


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