Statistical information Romania 1994Romania

Map of Romania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

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Romania in the World

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Romania - Introduction 1994
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989.


Romania - Geography 1994
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Location: Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 237,500 km²
Land: 230,340 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 19%
Forest and woodland: 28%
Other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography
Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine


Romania - People 1994
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Population: 23,181,415 (July 1994 est.)
Note: the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for that date as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population declined in 1993 by 0.3%
Growth rate: 0.06% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Romanian(s)

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.06% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 13.66 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 10.02 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.07 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19.9 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.74 years
Male: 68.81 years
Female: 74.84 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
Total population: 98%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Romania - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form:
local long form: none
local short form


Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu; Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory is being revised to conform with European norms

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989); election last held 27 September 1992 - with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
Head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense
Senate Senat: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats - (143 total) PDSR 49, CDR 34, PP-(FSN) 18, PUNR 14, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5
House of Deputies Adunarea: Deputatilor: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PDSR 27.5%, CDR 22.5%, PP-(FSN) 11%, others 39%; seats - (341 total) PDSR 117, CDR 82, PP-(FSN) 43, PUNR 30, UDMR 27, PRM 16, PSM 13, other 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (participating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr.
From the us chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [40] (1) 210-4,042
From the us fax: (202) 232-4,748
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
From the us mailing address: AmEmbassy (Buch), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 9,213-1315
From the us FAX: [40] (1) 210-0395

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Romania - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the former command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out in 1993. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully since the downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a growing private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of structural reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation rate and eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993 from the previous year's drought-reduced harvest; food supplies are adequate, but expensive. Bucharest resisted pressure to devalue its currency despite a $638 million trade deficit in the first half of 1993 and the emergence of a black market for hard currency. Unable to support the currency, the national bank, nonetheless, was forced to depreciate the currency 65% over the course of the year. The return of winter revealed that much of Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over the last four years due to reduced levels of public investment. Residents of the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and water services.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and refining

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1993 est.), accounts for 45% of GDP

Labor force: 10,945,700
By occupation industry: 38%
By occupation agriculture: 28%
By occupation other: 34% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11% (March 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$19 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: metals and metal products 24%, mineral products 14%, textiles 10.7%, electric machines and equipment 9.3%, transport materials 9.2% (1993)
Partners: EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central Europe 14.9%, EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)

Imports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: minerals 29%, machinery and equipment 17.2%, textiles 10%, agricultural goods 9% (1993)
Partners: EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries 22.6%, Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 1,387.16 (January 1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990), 14.922 (1989)


Romania - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 59 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,540 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Romania - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Romania - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 137 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1993; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Romania - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 234
Usable: 74
With permanentsurface runways: 26
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 21
With runways 10602439 m: 24
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Merchant marine: 241 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,626,421 GRT/4,017,380 DWT, bulk 49, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14, passenger-cargo 1, rail-car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7

Ports and terminals


Romania - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: no official territorial claim by either Moldova or Romania, but nationalists in Romania seek the merger of Moldova with Romania; potential future dispute by Moldova and Romania against Ukraine over former southern and northern Bessarabian areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route


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