Statistical information Rwanda 1994Rwanda

Map of Rwanda | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Rwanda in the World
Rwanda in the World

Economy Bookings

Rwanda - Introduction 1994
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Background: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda in April 1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million refugees fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire

Rwanda - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 26,340 km²
Land: 24,950 km²

Land boundaries: total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January; mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west


Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 29%
Permanent crops: 11%
Meadows and pastures: 18%
Forest and woodland: 10%
Other: 32%

Irrigated land: 40 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

Rwanda - People 1994
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Population: 8,373,963 (July 1994 est.)
Note: the demographic estimates were prepared before civil strife, starting in April 1994, set in motion substantial and continuing population changes
Growth rate: 2.78% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Rwandan(s)

Ethnic groups: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used in commercial centers

Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and other 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.78% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 49.17 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 21.35 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 118.7 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 40.25 years
Male: 39.33 years
Female: 41.21 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 8.19 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 50%
Male: 64%
Female: 37%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Rwanda - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form

Government type: republic; presidential system
Note: a new, interim government formed in August 1992 to last until peace accord; political parties are working to form a multiethical broad-based transitonal government to lead them to elections in 1995

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural - NA, singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda; Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 18 June 1991

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch
Chief of state: Interim President Dr. Theodore SINDIKUBWABO (since 8 April 1994, following the death of President Juvenal HABYARIMANA on 6 April 1994) the last election was held 19 December 1988 (next planned for 1995); results - the late President Juvenal HABYARIMANA was reelected
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean KAMBANDA, appointed by President SINDIKUBWABWO 8 April 1994 following the assassination of Agatha UWILINGIYIMANA on 7 April 1994

Legislative branch: Army (including Air Wing), Gendarmerie
National Development Council: (Conseil National de Developpement) elections last held 19 December 1988 (new elections to be held in 1995); results - MRND was the only party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70
Note: Rwanda plans to demobilize and reorganize with RPF elements during 1994

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant)
From the us chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [250] 75,601 through 75,603
From the us fax: (202) 232-4,544
From the us embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
From the us mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
From the us FAX: [250] 72,128
From the us note: embassy closed on 10 April 1994 and personnel withdrawn because of severe civil strife and consequent danger for foreign nationals

Flag descriptionflag of Rwanda: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Rwanda - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only 17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee/tea exports and foreign aid. Weak international prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in October 1990. Ethnic-based insurgency in 1990-93 devastated wide areas of the north and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. A peace accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the fighting, but massive resumption of civil warfare in April 1994 in the capital city Kigali has been taking thousands of lives and severely damaging short-term economic prospects

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.3% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash crops - coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums; main food crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up with a 2.8% annual growth in population

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: -2.2% (1991; accounts for 17% of GDP

Labor force: 3.6 million
By occupation agriculture: 93%
By occupation governmentand services: 5%
By occupation industry and commerce: 2%
By occupation note: 49% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$350 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $66.6 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
Partners: Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US

Imports: $259.5 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Partners: US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $845 million (1991 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 145.45 (December 1993), 133.35 (1992), 125.14 (1991), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989)

Rwanda - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 130 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 15 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Rwanda - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Rwanda - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Rwanda - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 8
Usable: 7
With permanentsurface runways: 3
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 1
With runways 1220-2439 m: 2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Rwanda - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Economy Bookings

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