Statistical information Somalia 1994Somalia

Map of Somalia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Somalia in the World
Somalia in the World


Somalia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Intermittent civil war has been a fact of life in Somalia since 1977. In 1991 the northern portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south it has not been recognized by any foreign government. Beginning in 1993 a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions.

Somalia - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern Indian Ocean, south of the Arabian Peninsula

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 637,660 km²
Land: 627,340 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest monsoon (May to October; irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north


Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 46%
Forest and woodland: 14%
Other: 38%

Irrigated land: 1,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

Somalia - People 1994
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Population: 6,666,873 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.24% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Somali(s)

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.24% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 45.97 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 13.53 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: use of contaminated water contributes to health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 125.8 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 54.75 years
Male: 54.49 years
Female: 55.01 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.25 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 24%
Male: 36%
Female: 14%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Somalia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: former:Somali Republic

Government type: none

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka; Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; presidential elections last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held NA; results - President SIAD was reelected without opposition

Legislative branch: NA
People's Assembly Golaha Shacbiga: elections last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA); results - SRSP was the only party; seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171; note - the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the provisional government has promised that a democratically elected government will be established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (non-functioning)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us:
Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in January 1991; United States Liaison Office (USLO) opened in December 1992

Flag descriptionflag of Somalia: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Somalia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up more than half of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Greatly increased political turmoil in 1991-93 has resulted in a substantial drop in output, with widespread famine.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats; crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil strife; fishing potential largely unexploited

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining; probably shut down by the widespread destruction during the civil war

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1990; accounts for 4% of GDP

Labor force: 2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
By occupation pastoralnomad: 70%
By occupation agriculture government trading fishing handicrafts andother: 30%
By occupation note: 53% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $58 million (1990 est.)
Commodities: bananas, live animals, fish, hides
Partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $249 million (1990 est.)
Commodities: petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
Partners: US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.9 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989)

Somalia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: NA

Electricity consumption
Per capita: NA

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Somalia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Somalia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Somalia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 76
Usable: 59
With permanentsurface runways: 8
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 6
With runways 1220-2439 m: 24

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 15 km




Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,554 GRT/6,892 DWT, cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1

Ports and terminals

Somalia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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