Statistical information Svalbard 1994Svalbard

Map of Svalbard | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Svalbard in the World
Svalbard in the World

Svalbard - Introduction 1994
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Background: First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.

Svalbard - Geography 1994
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Location: Nordic State, Northern Europe in the Arctic Ocean where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet, 445 km north of Norway

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 62,049 km²
Land: 62,049 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts


Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible

Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

Svalbard - People 1994
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Population: 3,018 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: -3.5% (1994 est.)


Ethnic groups: Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -3.5% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: NA
International agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Svalbard - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none

Government type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA


Legal system: NA

International law organization participation



Executive branch
Chief of State: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)
Head of Government: Governor Odd BLOMDAL (since NA); Assistant Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN (since NA September 1993)

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Svalbard: the flag of Norway is used

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Svalbard - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products


Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$13.3 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance



Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941 (1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)

Svalbard - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 45 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 13,860 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Svalbard - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Svalbard - Military 1994
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Svalbard - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4
Usable: 4
With permanentsurface runways: 1
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 1

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Svalbard - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: focus of maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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