Statistical information Switzerland 1994Switzerland

Map of Switzerland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Switzerland in the World
Switzerland in the World


Switzerland - Introduction 1994
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Background: Switzerland's independence and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers and Switzerland did not participate in either World War I or II. The political and economic integration of Europe since World War II may be rendering obsolete Switzerland's concern for neutrality.

Switzerland - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Europe, between France and Austria

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 41,290 km²
Land: 39,770 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes


Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 40%
Forest and woodland: 26%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 250 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to avalanches, landslides, flash floods

Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest elevations in Europe

Switzerland - People 1994
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Population: 7,040,119 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.7% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Swiss (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups
Total population: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
Swiss nationals: German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

Languages: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4%
Note: figures for Swiss nationals only - German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 12.23 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 9.2 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.97 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and open air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.17 years
Male: 74.8 years
Female: 81.71 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Total population: 99%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Switzerland - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Swiss Confederation
Conventional short form:
local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German) Confederation Suisse (French) Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form; Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian)

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German; Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 August 1291

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Otto STICH (1994 calendar year; presidency rotates annually; Vice President Kaspar VILLIGER (term runs concurrently with that of president)

Legislative branch: Army (Air Force is part of the Army), Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards
Council of States: (German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian - Consiglio degli Stati) elections last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP 18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3, LdU 1, Ticino League 1
National Council: (German - Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio Nazionale) elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other 2

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTRC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael C. POLT
From the us chancery: 2,900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [41] (31) 357-7,011
From the us fax: (202) 387-2,564
From the us consulates general: Zurich
From the us embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3,005 Bern
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us FAX: [41] (31) 357-7,344
From the us branch office: Geneva

Flag descriptionflag of Switzerland: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Switzerland - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and stable in the world - is nonetheless undergoing a painful adjustment after both the inflationary boom of the late-1980s and the electorate's rejection of membership in the European Economic Area in 1992. The Swiss finally emerged from a three-year recession in mid-1993 and posted a -0.6% GDP growth for the year. After a three-year struggle with inflation, the Swiss central bank's tight monetary policies have begun to pay off. Inflation slowed to 3.3% in 1993 from about 4% in 1992 and is expected to slow down further to 1.5% in 1994. Unemployment, however, will continue to be a problem over the near term. Swiss unemployment reached 5.1% in 1993 and will likely remain at that level through 1994 before declining in 1995. The voters' rejection of a referendum on membership in the EEA, which was supported by most political, business, and financial leaders has raised doubts that the country can maintain its preeminent prosperity and leadership in commercial banking in the twenty-first century. Despite these problems, Swiss per capita output, general living standards, education and science, health care, and diet remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has few natural resources except for the scenic natural beauty that has made it a world leader in tourism. Management-labor relations remain generally harmonious.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.6% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient in food; must import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 3.31 million (904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
By occupation services: 50%
By occupation industry and crafts: 33%
By occupation government: 10%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 6%
By occupation other: 1% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$23.7 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $63 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing
Partners: Western Europe 63.1% (EC countries 56%, other 7.1%), US 8.8%, Japan 3.4%

Imports: $60.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodities: agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials
Partners: Western Europe 79.2% (EC countries 72.3%, other 6.9%), US 6.4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.715 (January 1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989)

Switzerland - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 56 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 8,200 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Switzerland - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Switzerland - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion, 1.7% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Switzerland - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 70
Usable: 69
With permanentsurface runways: 42
With runways over 3659 m: 3
With runways 2440-3659 m: 4
With runways 1220-2439 m: 18

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km



Waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee; 12 navigable lakes

Merchant marine: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,455 GRT/592,213 DWT, bulk 10, cargo 4, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, specialized tanker 1

Ports and terminals

Switzerland - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center


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