Statistical information Thailand 1994Thailand

Map of Thailand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Thailand - Introduction 1994
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.


Thailand - Geography 1994
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Burma and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 514,000 km²
Land: 511,770 km²

Land boundaries: total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September; dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March; southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Elevation

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 30%
Other: 31%

Irrigated land: 42,300 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table

Geography
Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore


Thailand - People 1994
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Population: 59,510,471 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.3% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Thai (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Languages: Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional dialects

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 19.43 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 6.41 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution increasing from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 37.1 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.35 years
Male: 64.99 years
Female: 71.87 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 93%
Male: 96%
Female: 90%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Thailand - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form:
Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form


Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural; Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23 February 1991 military coup

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
Head of government: Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 23 September 1992)

Legislative branch: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces
Senate Vuthisatha: consists of a 270-member appointed body
House of RepresentativesSaphaphoothanRajsadhorn: elections last held 13 September 1992 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (360 total) DP 79, TNP 77, NDP 60, NAP 51, Phalang Tham 47, SAP 22, LDP 8, SP 8, Mass Party 4, Thai Citizen's Party 3, People's Party 1, People's Force Party 0

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON
From the us chancery: 2,300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [66] (2) 252-5,040
From the us fax: (202) 234-4,498
From the us consulates general: Chiang Mai
From the us embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,546
From the us FAX: [66] (2) 254-2,990
From the us consulates: Udorn (Udon Thani)

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Thailand - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political unrest in May 1992 to post an impressive 7.5% growth rate for the year and 7.8% in 1993. One of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, Thailand depends on exports of manufactures and the development of the service sector to fuel the country's rapid growth. The trade and current account deficits fell in 1992; much of Thailand's recent imports have been for capital equipment suggesting that the export sector is poised for further growth. With foreign investment slowing, Bangkok is working to increase the generation of domestic capital. Prime Minister CHUAN's government - Thailand's fifth government in less than two years - is pledged to continue Bangkok's probusiness policies, and the return of a democratically elected government has improved business confidence. Nevertheless, CHUAN must overcome divisions within his ruling coalition to complete much needed infrastructure development programs if Thailand is to remain an attractive place for business investment. Over the longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue its rapid economic development.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.8% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca; other crops - rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (1992; accounts for about 26% of GDP

Labor force: 30.87 million
By occupation agriculture: 62%
By occupation industry: 13%
By occupation commerce: 11%
By occupation services(includinggovernment): 14% (1989 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$21.36 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $28.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: machinery and manufactures 76.9%, agricultural products 14.9%, fisheries products 5.9% (1992)
Partners: US 22%, Japan 18%, Singapore 8%, Hong Kong 5%, Germany 4%, Netherlands 4%, UK 4%, Malaysia, France, China (1992)

Imports: $37.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodities: capital goods 41.4%, intermediate goods and raw materials 32.8%, consumer goods 10.4%, oil 8.2%
Partners: Japan 29.3%, US 11.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, Germany 5.4%, South Korea 4.6%, Malaysia 4.2%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, UK (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $33.4 billion (1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.446 (December 1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989)


Thailand - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 43.75 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 760 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Thailand - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Thailand - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $3.8 billion, 2.9% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Thailand - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 105
Usable: 96
With permanentsurface runways: 51
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 14
With runways 1220-2439 m: 28

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine: 198 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 998,372 GRT/1,561,824 DWT, bulk 14, cargo 105, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 2, container 13, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 43, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1

Ports and terminals


Thailand - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium and marijuana; major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts; also a major drug money laundering center


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