Statistical information Turkmenistan 1994Turkmenistan

Map of Turkmenistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Turkmenistan in the World
Turkmenistan in the World


Turkmenistan - Introduction 1994
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Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.

Turkmenistan - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Uzbekistan

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 488,100 km²
Land: 488,100 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: landlocked, but boundaries in the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Iran are under negotiations

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 69%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 28%

Irrigated land: 12,450 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Turkmenistan - People 1994
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Population: 3,995,122 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.01% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Turkmen(s)

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 73.3%, Russian 9.8%, Uzbek 9%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.9%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Eastern Orthodox 11%, unknown 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.01% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 30.42 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7.44 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.89 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya river into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 69.9 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.14 years
Male: 61.63 years
Female: 68.82 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.77 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Turkmenistan - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form:
local long form: Tiurkmenostan Respublikasy
local short form

Former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat):Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
Note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from welayat name

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since NA October 1990); election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002); results - Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed); note - a 15 January 1994 referendum extended NIYAZOV's term an additional five years until 2002 (99.99% approval)
Head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Batyr SARDJAEV, Valery G. OCHERTSOV, Orazgeldi AIDOGDIEV, Djourakuli BABAKULIYEV, Rejep SAPAROV, Boris SHIKHMURADOV, Abad RIZAEVA, Yagmur OVEZOV (since NA)

Legislative branch: National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Joint Command Turkmenistan/Russia (Ground, Navy or Caspian Sea Flotilla, Air, and Air Defense)
Assembly Majlis: elections last held 7 January 1990 (next to be held late 1994 or early 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) elections not officially by party, but Communist Party members won nearly 90% of seats; note - seats to be reduced to 50 at next election

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph S. HULINGS III
From the us chancery: 1511 K Street NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC, 20,005
From the us telephone: [7] 36,320 24-49-25 or 24-49-26
From the us embassy: Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address

Flag descriptionflag of Turkmenistan: green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and orange carpet guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs) associated with five different tribes; a white crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Turkmenistan - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. Half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; it is the world's tenth largest producer. It also is the world's fourth largest producer of natural gas and has the fifth largest reserves. Furthermore, Turkmenistan has substantial oil resources; its two oil refineries make it an exporter of refined products. Profiting from the move toward market prices for its oil and gas resources, Turkmenistan has suffered the least economic decline of the 15 states of the former USSR. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to questions of economic reform, using the profits from its gas and cotton exports to sustain a generally inefficient economy. Economic restructuring and privatization have just begun, and price liberalization and price increases have been accompanied by generous wage hikes and subsidies. At the same time, Turkmenistan faces serious constraints on its gas and oil earnings because of the inability of its traditional regional customers to pay for the current level of purchases and the lack of pipeline access to hard currency markets. Faced with financial shortfalls, rampant inflation, and the desire to ensure a stable currency, the regime has become more receptive to market reforms yet still seeks to offer widespread social benefits to its population and to retain state domination over the economy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.8% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton, grain, animal husbandry

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 5.3% (1993)

Labor force: 1.573 million
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 44%
By occupation industry and construction: 20%
By occupation other: 36% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1992 est.), includes only officially registered unemployed; also large number of underemployed

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.2 billion to states outside the FSU (1993)
Commodities: natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, textiles, carpets
Partners: Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Argentina

Imports: $490 million from states outside the FSU (1993)
Commodities: machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber, consumer durables, textiles
Partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: NEGL

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Turkmenistan - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 13.1 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,079 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Turkmenistan - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Turkmenistan - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Turkmenistan - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 7
Usable: 7
With permanentsurface runways: 4
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 4

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Turkmenistan - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of Caspian Sea from shore

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western Europe


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