Statistical information Yemen 1994Yemen

Map of Yemen | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Yemen in the World
Yemen in the World


Yemen - Introduction 1994
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Background: North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued.

Yemen - Geography 1994
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Location: Middle East, along the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, south of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 527,970 km²
Land: 527,970 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,746 km, Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline: 1,906 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
Continental shelf: 200-m depth in the North; 200 nm in the South or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula


Natural resources: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 30%
Forest and woodland: 7%
Other: 57%

Irrigated land: 3,100 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Note: controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

Yemen - People 1994
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Population: 11,105,202 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.34% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Yemeni(s)

Ethnic groups: predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in coastal locations; South Asians in southern regions; small European communities in major metropolitan areas; 60,000 (est.) Somali refugees encamped near Aden

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslim including Sha'fi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), Jewish, Christian, Hindu

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.34% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 50.72 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 14.94 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.44 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: scarcity of natural freshwater resources (shortages of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 112.8 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 51.47 years
Male: 50.34 years
Female: 52.65 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 38%
Male: 53%
Female: 26%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Yemen - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
Conventional short form:
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form; Al Yaman

Government type: republic

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramaut, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Shabwah, Taizz
Note: there may be a new capital district of Sana

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen} and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

Constitution: 16 May 1991

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen); note - Sanaa dismissed Vice President Ali Salim al-BIDH, Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS (the former president of South Yemen), and 14 other southern officials following the outbreak of civil war on 4 May 1994
Fivemember Presidential Council: president, vice president, two members from General People's Congress party, two members from Yemeni Socialist Party, and one member from Yemeni Grouping for Reform, or Islaah party

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police
House of Representatives: elections last held 27 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (301 total) GPC 124, YSP 55, Islaah 61, Ba'thist parties 7, Nasserist parties 4, Hizb al-Haqq 2, Independents 47, election nullified 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Arthur H. HUGHES
From the us chancery: Suite 705, 2,600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
From the us telephone: [967] (1) 238-842 through 238-852
From the us fax: (202) 337-2017
From the us consulate generals: Detroit
From the us embassy: Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 22,347 Sanaa or Sanaa, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-6,330
From the us FAX: [967] (1) 251-563

Flag descriptionflag of Yemen: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Yemen - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic development depends heavily on Western-assisted development of its moderate oil resources. Former South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in Soviet economic support. The low level of domestic industry and agriculture have made northern Yemen dependent on imports for practically all of its essential needs. Large trade deficits have been compensated for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and by foreign aid. Because of the Gulf crisis, remittances have dropped substantially. Once self-sufficient in food production, northern Yemen has become a major importer. Land once used for export crops - cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to growing a shrub called qat, whose leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect by Yemenis and which has no significant export market. Economic growth in former South Yemen has been constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production decisions, investment allocation, and import choices. Nominal growth in 1994-95 is apt to be under 3% annually because of low oil prices and political deadlock that is causing a lack of economic cooperation and leadership.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.1% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounted for 26% of GDP; products - grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, fish; not self-sufficient in grain

Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%, accounts for 18% of GDP

Labor force: no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in agriculture and herding or as expatriate laborers; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than half of the labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (December 1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $695 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and salted fish
Partners: Italy 55%, US 32%, Jordan 5% (1991)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery, chemicals
Partners: UAE 6%, Japan 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 6% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yemeni rials per US$1 - 12.0 (official; 70 (market rate, April 1994)

Yemen - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.224 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 120 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Yemen - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Yemen - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $762 million, 14% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Yemen - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 46
Usable: 40
With permanentsurface runways: 10
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 18
With runways 1220-2439 m: 11

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km




Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT, cargo 2, oil tanker 1

Ports and terminals

Yemen - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; a treaty with Oman defining the Yemeni-Omani boundary was ratified in December 1992

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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