Statistical information Zimbabwe 1994Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Zimbabwe in the World
Zimbabwe in the World

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Zimbabwe - Introduction 1994
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE the nation's first prime minister has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.


Zimbabwe - Geography 1994
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Location: Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 390,580 km²
Land: 386,670 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld; mountains in east

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: NA% (coffee is a permanent crop)
Meadows and pastures: 12%
Forest and woodland: 62%
Other: NA%

Irrigated land: 2,200 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Geography
Note: landlocked


Zimbabwe - People 1994
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Population: 10,975,078 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.2% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Zimbabwean(s)

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele

Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 37.24 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 18.1 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.18 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.4 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Tatal population: 42.06 years
Male: 40.44 years
Female: 43.74 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.);
Total population: 67%
Male: 74%
Female: 60%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Zimbabwe - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
Conventional short form: former:Southern Rhodesia

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987; Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987; Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990; election last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996; results - Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%

Legislative branch: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (including Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Parliament: elections last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 117, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER
From the us chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [263] (4) 794-521
From the us fax: (202) 483-9,326
From the us embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 3,340, Harare
From the us FAX: [263] (4) 796-488

Flag descriptionflag of Zimbabwe: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Zimbabwe - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years have resulted in an uneven growth rate, one that on average has matched the 3% annual increase in population. Helped by an IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program, output rose 3.5% in 1991. A severe drought in 1991/92 caused the economy to contract by about 10% in 1992.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1992; accounts for 35% of GDP

Labor force: 3.1 million
By occupation agriculture: 74%
By occupation transport and services: 16%
By occupation construction: 10% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: at least 35% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.7 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 10%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%, ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992)
Partners: UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%, chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991)
Partners: South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.5 billion (December 1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.1037 (January 1994), 6.4725 (1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989)


Zimbabwe - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.18 billion kWh (1992)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 740 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Zimbabwe - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Zimbabwe - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Zimbabwe - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 477
Usable: 401
With permanentsurface runways: 22
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 28

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Zimbabwe - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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