Argentina 1995Argentina

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Argentina
Argentina 

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Argentina - Introduction 1995
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Background: A part of the Spanish empire until independence in 1816, Argentina subsequently experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. Meantime, thanks to rich natural resources and foreign investment, a modern agriculture and a diversified industry were gradually developed. After World War II, a long period of Peronist dictatorship was followed by rule by a military junta. Democratic elections finally came in 1983, but both the political and economic atmosphere remain susceptible to turmoil.


Argentina - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Total area total: 2,766,890 km²
Land: 2,736,690 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 9%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 52%
Forest and woodland: 22%
Other: 13%

Irrigated land: 17,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil; strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)


Argentina - People 1995
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Population: 34,292,742 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.11% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Argentine(s)
Adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28% (female 4,706,793; male 4,903,589)
15-64 years: 62% (female 10,680,074; male 10,689,728)
65 years and over: 10% (female 1,922,552; male 1,390,006) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.51 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.19 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cites; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use
Current issues natural hazards: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
Current issues international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 28.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.51 years
Male: 68.22 years
Female: 74.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 95%
Male: 96%
Female: 95%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Argentina - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Argentine Republic
Conventional short form: Argentina
Local long form: Republica Argentina
Local short form: Argentina

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
Note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position vacant); election last held 14 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was reelected
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate: elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48 total) - PJ 29, UCR 11, others 7, vacant 1
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 3 October 1993 ( next to be held October 1995); elections are held every two years and half of the total membership is elected each time for four year terms; seats - (257 total) PJ 122, UCR 83, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
In the us chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-6,400 through 6,403
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK
From the us embassy: 4,300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
From the us mailing address: Unit 4,334; APO AA 34,034
From the us telephone: [54] (1) 777-4,533, 4,534
From the us FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag descriptionflag of Argentina: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Argentina - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Argentina, rich in natural resources, benefits also from a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20 years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. The economy registered an impressive 6% advance in 1994, fueled largely by inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption spending. The government's major short term objective is encouraging exports, e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. At the start of 1995, the government had to deal with the spillover from international financial movements associated with the devaluation of the Mexican peso. In addition, unemployment had become a serious issue for the government. Despite average annual 7% growth in 1991-94, unemployment surprisingly has doubled - due mostly to layoffs in government bureaus and in privatized industrial firms and utilities and, to a lesser degree, to illegal immigration. Much remains to be done in the 1990s in dismantling the old statist barriers to growth, extending the recent economic gains, and bringing down the rate of unemployment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing; produces abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 12.5% accounts for 31% of GDP (1994 est.)

Labor force: 10.9 million
By occupation agriculture: 12%
By occupation industry: 31%
By occupation services: 57% (1985est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $48.46 billion
Expenditures: $46.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures
Partners: US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $21.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants, agricultural products
Partners: US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $73 billion (April 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99870 (December 1994), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990)


Argentina - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 54.8 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,610 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Argentina - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 2,650,000 telephones; 12,000 public telephones; 78 telephones/1000 persons; extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones; microwave widely used; however, during rainstorms, the telephone system frequently grounds out, even in Buenos Aires
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay and domestic satellite network with 40 earth stations
International: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Argentina - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Argentina - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,602
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 25
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 55
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 48
With paved runways under 914 m: 703
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 70
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 693

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 25
15-24 to 2437 m: 55
914 to 1523 m: 48
Under 914 m: 703

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2438 m: 70
914 to 1523 m: 693

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 434,525 GRT/667,501 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 21, chemical tanker 1, container 4, oil tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Ports and terminals


Argentina - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas; claims British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and Europe


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