Cuba 1995Cuba

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Cuba - Introduction 1995
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Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959, and his guiding vision has defined Cuba's Communist revolution while his iron will has held the country together for more than four decades. CASTRO brought Cuba onto the world stage by inviting Soviet support in the 1960s, inciting revolutionary movements throughout Latin America and Africa in the 1970s, and sending his army to fight in Angola in the 1980s. At home, Havana provided Cubans with high levels of healthcare, education, and social security while suppressing the Roman Catholic Church and arresting political dissidents. Cuba is slowly recovering from severe economic recession following the withdrawal of former-Soviet subsidies, worth $4billion-$6 billion per year, in 1990.

Cuba - Geography 1995
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Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Total area total: 110,860 km²
Land: 110,860 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
Note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April; rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast


Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23%
Permanent crops: 6%
Meadows and pastures: 23%
Forest and woodland: 17%
Other: 31%

Irrigated land: 8,960 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off military aid by 1993

Cuba - People 1995
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Population: 10,937,635 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Noun: Cuban(s)
Adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,191,320; male 1,256,928)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,732,434; male 3,751,464)
65 years and over: 10% (female 528,104; male 477,385) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.54 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.53 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.55 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation
Current issues natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Current issues international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.05 years
Male: 74.86 years
Female: 79.37 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15-49 and over can read and write (1981)
Total population: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Cuba - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
Conventional short form: Cuba
Local long form: Republica de Cuba
Local short form: Cuba

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial; Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; President since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly of Peoples Power: (, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) elections last held February 1993 (next to be held NA); seats - 589 total, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA PEREZ (since August 1992) represented by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy in Washington, DC
In the us chancery: 2,630 and 2,639 16th Street NW, Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 797-8,609, 8,610, 8,615
From the us chief of mission: Principal Officer Joseph G. SULLIVAN
From the us US Interests Section: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana
From the us mailing address: use street address
From the us telephone: 33-3,551 through 3,559, 33-3,543 through 3,547, 33-3,700 (operator assistance required)
From the us FAX: Telex 512,206
From the us note: protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy

Flag descriptionflag of Cuba: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Cuba - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Cuba's heavily statist economy remains severely depressed as the result of its own inefficiencies and the loss of massive amounts of economic aid from the former Soviet Bloc. Total output in 1994 was only about half the output of 1989. The fall in output and in imports is reflected in the deterioration of food supplies, shortages of electricity, inability to get spare parts, and the replacement of motor-driven vehicles by bicycles and draft animals. Higher world market prices for sugar and nickel in 1994, however, resulted in a slight increase in export earnings for the first time in six years, despite lower production of both commodities. The growth of tourism slowed in late 1994 as a result of negative publicity surrounding the exodus of Cubans from the island and other international factors. The government continued its aggressive search for foreign investment and announced preliminary agreements to form large joint ventures with Mexican investors in telecommunications and oil refining. In mid-1994, the National Assembly began introducing several new taxes and price increases to stem growing excess liquidity and restore some of the peso's value as a monetary instrument. In October the government attempted to stimulate food production by permitting the sale of any surplus production (over state quotas) at unrestricted prices at designated markets. Similar but much smaller markets were also introduced for the sale of manufactured goods in December. The various government measures have influenced a remarkable appreciation of the black market value of the peso, from more than 100 pesos to the dollar in September 1994 to 40 pesos to the dollar in early 1995. Policy discussions continue in the bureaucracy over the proper pace and scope of economic reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: key commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar; sector hurt by persistent shortages of fuels and parts

Industries: sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state sector
By occupation services and government: 30%
By occupation industry: 22%
By occupation agriculture: 20%
By occupation commerce: 11%
By occupation construction: 10%
By occupation transportationandcommunications: 7% (June1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $9.3 billion
Expenditures: $12.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
Partners: Russia 15%, Canada 9%, China 8%, Egypt 6%, Spain 5%, Japan 4%, Morocco 4% (1994 est.)

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
Partners: Spain 17%, Mexico 10%, France 8%, China 8%, Venezuela 7%, Italy 4%, Canada 3%, (1994 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $10.8 billion (convertible currency, December 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Cuba - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 12 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,022 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Cuba - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 229,000 telephones; 20.7 telephones/1000 persons; among the world's least developed telephone systems
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Cuba - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: approx. $600 million, 4% of GSP (gross social product) in 1994 was for defense

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Cuba - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 181
With paved runways over 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 10
With paved runways under 914 m: 106
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 36

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
914 to 1523 m: 10
Under 914 m: 106

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 36





Waterways: 240 km

Merchant marine
Total: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 278,103 GRT/396,138 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 22, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 10, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 9
Note: Cuba beneficially owns an additional 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 215,703 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and Mauritius

Ports and terminals

Cuba - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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