Cyprus 1995Cyprus

 Cyprus | | | | | |
| | | :  |

Cyprus
Cyprus 

SurfShark


Cyprus - Introduction 1995
top of page


Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974 a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983 the Turkish-held area declared itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but it is recognized only by Turkey.


Cyprus - Geography 1995
top of page


Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterreanean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceMiddle East

Area
Total area total: 9,250 km² (note - 3,355 km² are in the Turkish area)
Land: 9,240 km²
Comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 40%
Permanent crops: 7%
Meadows and pastures: 10%
Forest and woodland: 18%
Other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Cyprus - People 1995
top of page


Population
Total: 736,636 (July 1995 est.) (78% Greek, 18% Turk, 4% other)
Greek area total: 602,656 (July 1995 est.) (94.9% Greek, 0.3% Turk, 4.8% other)
Turkish area total: 133,980 (July 1995 est.) (2.1% Greek, 97.7% Turk, 0.2% other)
Growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Cypriot(s)
Adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: total:Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 26% (female 92,179; male 97,723)
15-64 years: 64% (female 234,929; male 236,693)
65 years and over: 10% (female 42,190; male 32,922) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.27 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Current issues natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.47 years
Male: 74.19 years
Female: 78.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
Total population: 94%
Male: 98%
Female: 91%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Cyprus - Government 1995
top of page


Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
Conventional short form: Cyprus
Note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Government type: republic
Note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
Note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
Note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
Note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results - Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and vice-president
Note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral
Greek area total: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon):elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish area total: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results - UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES
In the us chancery: 2,211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-5,772
In the us consulates general: New York
In the us note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202) 887-6,198
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER
From the us embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 4,536 APO AE 9,836
From the us telephone: [357] (2) 476,100
From the us FAX: [357] (2) 465,944

Flag descriptionflag of Cyprus: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
Note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Cyprus - Economy 1995
top of page


Economy overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes 14% to GDP and employs 29% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 53% to GDP and employs 57% of the labor force. An average 6.8% rise in real GDP between 1986 and 1990 was temporarily checked in 1991, because of the adverse effects of the Gulf war on tourism. After surging 8.5% in 1992, growth slowed to 2.0% in 1993 - its lowest level in two decades - because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor costs. Real GDP is likely to have picked up in 1994, and inflation is estimated to have risen to between 5% and 6%. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs one-quarter of the work force. Moreover, because the Turkish lira is legal tender, the Turkish Cypriot economy has suffered the same high inflation as mainland Turkey. The small, vulnerable economy is estimated to have experienced a sharp drop in growth during 1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen in value to about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate
Greek area total: 5% (1994 est.)
Turkish area total: -4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: contributes 6% to GDP and employs 25% of labor force in the south; major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 0.1% (1993; accounts for 14% of GDP

Labor force
Greek area total: 285,500
By occupation services: 52%
By occupation industry: 23%
By occupation agriculture: 25% (1992)
Turkish area total: 74,000
Labor force

Unemployment rate
Greek area total: 2.3% (1993)
Turkish area total: 1.2% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: Greek area - $1.8 billion Turkish area - $285 million
Expenditures: Greek area - $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $400 million Turkish area - $377 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $868 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes
Partners: UK 18%, Greece 9%, Lebanon 14%, Germany 6%

Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery
Partners: UK 13%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 8%, US 8%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.4 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per $US1 - 0.4725 (January 1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4615 (1991), 0.4572 (1990; Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December 1994), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990)


Cyprus - Energy 1995
top of page


Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.3 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Cyprus - Communication 1995
top of page


Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 210,000 telephones; excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay
International: international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables, and 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Cyprus - Military 1995
top of page


Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $457 million, 5.6% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Cyprus - Transportation 1995
top of page


National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 15
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 7
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 4

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 1

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 1,446 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,911,818 GRT/39,549,216 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 473, cargo 530, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 55, combination ore/oil 24, container 92, liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 5, oil tanker 120, passenger 5, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 58, roll-on/roll-off cargo 33, short-sea passenger 14, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2
Note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 48 countries among which are ships of Greece 705, Germany 174, Russia 56, Netherlands 45, Japan 27, Belgium 25, UK 21, Spain 17, Switzerland 14, Hong Kong 13

Ports and terminals


Cyprus - Transnational issues 1995
top of page


Disputes international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island; there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey


DHGate Shopping


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it