France 1995France

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France
France 

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France - Introduction 1995
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Background: Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II, France lost many men, much wealth, its extensive empire, and its rank as a dominant nation-state. France has struggled since 1958_arguably with success_to construct a presidential democracy resistant to the severe instabilities inherent in the parliamentary democracy of early 20th century France. In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe.


France - Geography 1995
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Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total area total: 547,030 km²
Land: 545,630 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
Note: includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas administrative divisions

Land boundaries: total 2,892.4 km, Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 23%
Forest and woodland: 27%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 11,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: largest West European nation; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral


France - People 1995
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Population: 58,109,160 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
Adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19% (female 5,438,447; male 5,700,143)
15-64 years: 65% (female 18,889,771; male 19,001,536)
65 years and over: 16% (female 5,433,276; male 3,645,987) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.86 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Current issues natural hazards: flooding
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.37 years
Male: 74.5 years
Female: 82.44 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


France - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: French Republic
Conventional short form: France
Local long form: Republique Francaise
Local short form: France

Government type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
Note: the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: (10) Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
Note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); election last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1995); results - Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
Head of government: Prime Minister Edouard BALLADUR (since 29 March 1993)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate Senat: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held September 1995; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 142, PS 66, PCF 16, independents 2, other 4
National Assembly Assemblee Nationale: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI
In the us chancery: 4,101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 944-6,000
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN
From the us embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75,382 Paris Cedex 08
From the us mailing address: Unit 21,551, Paris; APO AE 9,777
From the us telephone: [33] (1) 42 96 12 02, 42 61 80 75
From the us FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
From the us consulates general: Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag descriptionflag of France: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor; the design and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


France - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: One of the world's most highly developed economies, France has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy. Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP in 1994 expanded 2.4%. Growth in 1995 is expected to be in the 3.0% to 3.5% range. Persistently high unemployment will still pose a major problem for the government. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high despite France's low inflation. Although the pace of economic and financial integration within the European Union has slowed down, integration presumably will remain a major force shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors over the next few years.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 24.17 million
By occupation services: 61.5%
By occupation industry: 31.3%
By occupation agriculture: 7.2% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.6% (yearend 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $220.5 billion
Expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993 budget)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $249.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
Partners: Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.0%, Spain 11.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 8.8%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 6.4%, Japan 2.0%, FSU 0.7% (1991 est.)

Imports: $238.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron and steel products
Partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.9%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.5%, UK 7.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.3% (1991 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $300 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990)


France - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 447 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


France - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 39,200,000 telephones; highly developed; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks; large-scale introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic traffic
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay, optical fiber cable, and domestic satellites
International: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean); HF radio communications with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


France - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $47.1 billion, 3.1% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


France - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 476
With paved runways over 3047 m: 12
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 29
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 96
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 74
With paved runways under 914 m: 188
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 74

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 12
2438 to 3047 m: 29
15-24 to 2437 m: 96
914 to 1523 m: 74
Under 914 m: 188

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 74

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Merchant marine
Total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,183 GRT/3,323,068 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 21, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 2
Note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia

Ports and terminals


France - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs




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