Philippines 1995Philippines

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Philippines
Philippines 

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Philippines - Introduction 1995
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Background: The Philippines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained their independence in 1946 after being occupied by the Japanese in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986 when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992 the US closed down its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since Marcos' removal by 'people power.'


Philippines - Geography 1995
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Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total area total: 300,000 km²
Land: 298,170 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April; southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 26%
Permanent crops: 11%
Meadows and pastures: 4%
Forest and woodland: 40%
Other: 19%

Irrigated land: 16,200 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Philippines - People 1995
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Population: 73,265,584 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Filipino(s)
Adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 38% (female 13,841,552; male 14,214,234)
15-64 years: 58% (female 21,603,818; male 20,923,307)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,425,706; male 1,256,967) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 30.42 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.97 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.14 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds
Current issues natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides, active volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunamis
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 49.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.65 years
Male: 63.16 years
Female: 68.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 94%
Male: 94%
Female: 93%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Philippines - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
Conventional short form: Philippines
Local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
Local short form: Pilipinas

Government type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992); Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); election last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - Fidel Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of the vote, a narrow plurality
Cabinet: Executive Secretary; appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso)
Senate Senado: elections last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP 66%, NPC 20%, Lakas/NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats - (24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5, Lakas/NUCD 2, Liberal 1, independent 1
House of Representatives Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan: elections last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP 43.5%; Lakas/NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL 3%; seats - (200 total) LDP 87, NPC 45, Lakas/NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP 6, KBL 3, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
In the us chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 467-9,300
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-7,614
In the us consulates general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
In the us consulates: San Diego and San Jose (Saipan)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE
From the us embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,440
From the us telephone: [63] (2) 521-71-16
From the us FAX: [63] (2) 522-43-61
From the us consulates: Cebu

Flag descriptionflag of Philippines: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Philippines - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy failed to grow in 1992 and rose only slightly in 1993. Drought and power supply problems hampered production, while inadequate revenues prevented government pump priming. Worker remittances helped to supplement GDP. A marked increase in capital goods imports, particularly power generating equipment, telecommunications equipment, and electronic data processors, contributed to 20% annual import growth in 1992-94. Provided the government can cope with the substantial trade deficit and meet the fiscal targets agreed to with the IMF, the Philippines should duplicate the strong growth performance of 1994 in 1995-96.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 22% of GDP and about 45% of labor force; major crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangos; animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (1993; accounts for 28% of GDP

Labor force: 24.12 million
By occupation agriculture: 46%
By occupation industry and commerce: 16%
By occupation services: 18.5%
By occupation government: 10%
By occupation other: 9.5% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $14 billion
Expenditures: $15.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: electronics, textiles, coconut products, copper, fish
Partners: US 39%, Japan 16%, Germany 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4% (1993)

Imports: $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products 10%
Partners: Japan 23%, US 20%, Taiwan 6%, Singapore 5%, South Korea 5% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $40 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 24.622 (January 1995), 26.417 (1994), 22.120 (1993), 25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311 (1990)


Philippines - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 20.4 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 278 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Philippines - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 872,900 telephones; good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
Local: NA
Intercity: 11 domestic satellite links
International: submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; 3 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Philippines - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $731 million, 1.4% of GNP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Philippines - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 269
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 24
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With paved runways under 914 m: 133
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 67

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 24
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 133

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 67

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels

Merchant marine
Total: 552 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,748,083 GRT/14,373,730 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 237, cargo 134, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 6, livestock carrier 9, oil tanker 46, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 11, refrigerated cargo 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 17, vehicle carrier 29
Note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 13 ships, Norway 2, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, and South Korea 1

Ports and terminals


Philippines - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis despite government eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for the US


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