Turkey 1995Turkey

 Turkey | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Turkey - Introduction 1995
top of page

Background: the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace

Turkey - Geography 1995
top of page

Location: Southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceMiddle East

Total area total: 780,580 km²
Land: 770,760 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)


Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 30%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 12%
Forest and woodland: 26%
Other: 28%

Irrigated land: 22,200 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

Turkey - People 1995
top of page

Population: 63,405,526 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.97% (1995 est.)

Noun: Turk(s)
Adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35% (female 10,815,288; male 11,203,723)
15-64 years: 60% (female 18,723,772; male 19,391,037)
65 years and over: 5% (female 1,764,363; male 1,507,343) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.33 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.64 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation
Current issues natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification, Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 45.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.48 years
Male: 69.11 years
Female: 73.96 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 79%
Male: 90%
Female: 68%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Turkey - Government 1995
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkiye

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (iller, singular - il; Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
Head of government: Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since 5 July 1993); Deputy Prime Minister Hikmet CETIN (since 27 March 1995)
National Security Council: advisory body to the President and the Cabinet
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on nomination of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Grand National Assembly of Turkey: (, Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi) elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1996); results - DYP 27.03%, ANAP 24.01%, SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%, SBP 0.44%, independent 0.14%; seats - (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115, SHP 86, RP 40, MCP 19, DSP 7, other 5
Note: seats held by various parties are subject to change due to defections, creation of new parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies; present seats by party are as follows:DYP 183, ANAP 97, RP 38, CHP 65, MHP 17, BBP 7, DSP 10, YP 3, MP 2, independents 6, vacant 22

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
In the us chancery: 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 659-8,200
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Marc GROSSMAN
From the us embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
From the us mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5,000, Ankara; APO AE 9,823
From the us telephone: [90] (312) 468-6,110 through 6,128
From the us FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
From the us consulates general: Istanbul
From the us consulates: Adana

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Turkey - Economy 1995
top of page

Economy overview: In early 1995, after an impressive economic performance through most of the 1980s, Turkey continues to suffer through its most damaging economic crisis in the last 15 years. Sparked by the downgrading in January 1994 of Turkey's international credit rating by two US credit rating agencies, the crisis stems from years of loose fiscal and monetary policies that had exacerbated inflation and allowed the public debt, money supply, and current account deficit to explode. In April 1994, Prime Minister CILLER introduced an austerity package aimed at restoring domestic and international confidence in her fragile coalition government. Three months later the IMF endorsed the program, paving the way for a $740 million IMF standby loan. Although the economy showed signs of improvement following the stabilization measures, CILLER has been unable to overcome the political obstacles to tough structural reforms necessary for sustained, longer-term growth. As a consequence, the economy is suffering the worst of both worlds:at the end of 1994, inflation hit a record 126% (annual rate), and real GDP dropped an estimated 5% for the year as a whole, the worst decline in Turkey's post-war history. At the same time, the government missed key 1994 targets stipulated in the IMF agreement:the budget deficit is estimated to have overshot the government's goal by 47%; the total public sector borrowing requirement likely reached 10%-12% of GDP, rather than 8.5% called for in the program; and the Turkish lira's value fell 5% to 7% more than expected. The unprecedented effort by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to raise the economic costs of its insurgency against the Turkish state is adding to Turkey's economic problems. Attacks against tourists have jeopardized tourist revenues, which account for about 3% of GDP, while economic activity in southeastern Turkey, where most of the violence occurs, has dropped considerably. Turkish officials are now negotiating a new letter of intent with the IMF that will stipulate more realistic macroeconomic goals for 1995 and allow the release of remaining funds of the standby agreement.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 16% of GDP; products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (1993; accounts for 26% of GDP

Labor force: 20.4 million
By occupation agriculture: 44%
By occupation services: 41%
By occupation industry: 15%
Note: between 1.5 million and 1.8 million Turks work abroad (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.6% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $28.3 billion
Expenditures: $33.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.2 billion (1995)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: manufactured products 72%, foodstuffs 23%, mining products 4% (1993)
Partners: Germany 24%, Russia 7%, US 7%, UK 6% (1993)

Imports: $27.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: manufactured products 71%, fuels 14%, foodstuffs 6% (1993)
Partners: Germany 15%, US 11%, Italy 9%, Russia 8% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $66.6 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December 1994), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990)

Turkey - Energy 1995
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 71 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,079 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Turkey - Communication 1995
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 3,400,000 telephones; fair domestic and international systems
Local: NA
Intercity: trunk radio relay microwave network; limited open wire network
International: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth station; 1 submarine cable

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Turkey - Military 1995
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.9 billion, 4.1% of GDP (1993; note - figures do not include about $7 billion for the government's counterinsurgency efforts against the separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Turkey - Transportation 1995
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 116
With paved runways over 3047 m: 16
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 20
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 21
With paved runways under 914 m: 34
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 11

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 16
2438 to 3047 m: 20
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 21
Under 914 m: 34

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 11


Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km



Waterways: about 1,200 km

Merchant marine
Total: 423 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,014,004 GRT/8,695,636 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 113, cargo 203, chemical tanker 14, combination bulk 7, combination ore/oil 12, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 4, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 46, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 2

Ports and terminals

Turkey - Transnational issues 1995
top of page

Disputes international: complex maritime, air and territorial disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it