Statistical information Armenia 1995Armenia

Map of Armenia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Armenia - Introduction 1995
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Background: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's seven-year old conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.


Armenia - Geography 1995
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Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area
Total area total: 29,800 km²
Land: 28,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 17%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 20%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked


Armenia - People 1995
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Population: 3,557,284 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.94% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Armenian(s)
Adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
Note: as of the end of 1994, most Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 31% (female 542,664; male 570,998)
15-64 years: 61% (female 1,103,171; male 1,076,226)
65 years and over: 8% (female 154,784; male 109,441) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.79 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies
Current issues natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.36 years
Male: 68.94 years
Female: 75.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Armenia - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
Conventional short form: Armenia
Local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Local short form: Hayastan
Former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 37 regions (shrjanner, singular - shrjan) and 23 cities* (kaghakner, singular - kaghak; Abovyan*, Akhuryani Shrjan, Alaverdi*, Amasiayi Shrjan, Anii Shrjan, Aparani Shrjan, Aragatsi Shrjan, Ararat*, Ararati Shrjan, Armaviri Shrjan, Artashat*, Artashati Shrjan, Art'ik*, Art'iki Shrjan, Ashots'k'i Shrjan, Ashtarak*, Ashtaraki Shrjan, Baghramyani Shrjan, Ch'arents'avan*, Dilijan*, Ejmiatsin*, Ejmiatsni Shrjan, Goris*, Gorisi Shrjan, Gugark'i Shrjan, Gyumri*, Hoktemberyan*, Hrazdan*, Hrazdani Shrjan, Ijevan*, Ijevani Shrjan, Jermuk*, Kamo*, Kamoyi Shrjan, Kapan*, Kapani Shrjan, Kotayk'i Shrjan, Krasnoselski Shrjan, Martunu Shrjan, Masisi Shrjan, Meghru Shrjan, Metsamor*, Nairii Shrjan, Noyemberyani Shrjan, Sevan*, Sevani Shrjan, Sisiani Shrjan, Spitak*, Spitaki Shrjan, Step'anavan*, Step'anavani Shrjan, T'alini Shrjan, Tashiri Shrjan, Taushi Shrjan, T'umanyani Shrjan, Vanadzor*, Vardenisi Shrjan, Vayk'i Shrjan, Yeghegnadzori Shrjan, Yerevan*

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic; 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; referendum on new constitution to be held 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since October 1991) election last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
Head of government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993); First Deputy Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Soviet: elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held 5 July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) non-aligned 136, ANM 52, DPA 17, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 12, NDU 9, Christian Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1, ONS 1, Republican Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
In the us chancery: Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 628-5,766
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 628-5,769
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE
From the us embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [7] (8,852) 151-144, 524-661
From the us FAX: [7] (8,852) 151-138

Flag descriptionflag of Armenia: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Armenia - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a more modern industrial sector, supplying machine building equipment, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The economic decline in recent years (1991-94) has been particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with chronic energy shortages because of a lack of capacity and frequent disruptions of natural gas deliveries through unstable Georgia, as well as difficulties in obtaining other types of fuel. In addition, bread is strictly rationed and there are shortages of other goods. In 1994, the economy seemed to bottom out. The government has managed to increase its financial and budgetary discipline, bringing inflation down from around 40% per month in first half 1994 to single digits in second half 1994 and the first quarter of 1995. A full economic recovery cannot be expected until the conflict is settled and the blockade lifted.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: only 17% of land area is arable; employs 31% of labor force as residents increasingly turn to subsistence agriculture; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs

Industries: traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics (1990; currently, much of industry is shut down

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1994 est.), accounts for 41% of GDP

Labor force: 1.578 million
By occupation industry and construction: 34%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 31%
By occupation other: 35% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of underemployed (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $43 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment, electrical equipment
Partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports: $120 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
Partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 406 (end December 1994)


Armenia - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.7 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,620 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Armenia - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: about 650,000 telephones; 177 telephones/1000 persons; progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains in the negotiation phase for joint venture agreement
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; 1 INTELSAT satellite link

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Armenia - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.), note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Armenia - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 11
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Armenia - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: supports ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh in their separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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