Statistical information Australia 1995Australia

Map of Australia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Australia in the World
Australia in the World

CheapFlightsFares


Australia - Introduction 1995
top of page


Background: Australia became a British commonwealth in 1901. Blessed by rich natural resources, the country enjoyed rapid gains in herding, agriculture, and manufacturing and made a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Australia subsequently developed its minerals, metals, and fossil fuel markets, all of which have become key Australian exports. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.


Australia - Geography 1995
top of page


Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceOceania

Area
Total area total: 7,686,850 km²
Land: 7,617,930 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US
Note: includes Macquarie Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 58%
Forest and woodland: 14%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 18,800 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer


Australia - People 1995
top of page


Population: 18,322,231 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.31% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Australian(s)
Adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Languages: English, native languages

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,929,366; male 2,032,238)
15-64 years: 67% (female 6,017,362; male 6,181,887)
65 years and over: 11% (female 1,227,004; male 934,374) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.31% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.13 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.37 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.33 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Current issues natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.78 years
Male: 74.67 years
Female: 81.04 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Australia - Government 1995
top of page


Country name
Conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
Conventional short form: Australia

Government type: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: (6) Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
Head of government: Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
Cabinet: Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of the House and Senate

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament
Senate: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2, independents 1
House of Representatives: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (147 total) Labor 80, Liberal-National 65, independent 2

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald Eric RUSSELL
In the us chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 797-3,000
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 797-3,168
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Edward J. PERKINS
From the us embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2,600
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,549
From the us telephone: [61] (6) 270-5,000
From the us FAX: [61] (6) 270-5,970
From the us consulates general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
From the us consulates: Brisbane

Flag descriptionflag of Australia: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Australia - Economy 1995
top of page


Economy overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Primary products account for more than 60% of the value of total exports, so that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak world demand for Australia's exports. Growth picked up so strongly in 1994 that the government felt the need for fiscal and monetary tightening by yearend. Australia's GDP grew 6.4% in 1994, largely due to increases in industrial output and business investment. A severe drought in 1994 is expected to reduce the value of Australia's net farm production by $825 million in the twelve months through June 1995, but rising world commodity prices are likely to boost rural exports by 7.7% to $14.5 billion in 1995/96, according to government statistics.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.4% (1994)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues; world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (FY93/94; accounts for 32% of GDP

Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991)
By occupation finance and services: 33.8%
By occupation public and community services: 22.3%
By occupation wholesaleandretailtrade: 20.1%
By occupation manufacturingandindustry: 16.2%
By occupation agriculture: 6.1% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.9% (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $83.8 billion
Expenditures: $92.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $50.4 billion (1994)
Commodoties: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Partners: Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong (1992)

Imports: $51.1 billion (1994)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, crude oil and petroleum products
Partners: US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $147.2 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January 1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990)


Australia - Energy 1995
top of page


Electricity access

Electricity production: 155 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 8,021 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Australia - Communication 1995
top of page


Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 8,700,000 telephones; good international and domestic service
Local: NA
Intercity: domestic satellite service
International: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; 10 INTELSAT (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Australia - Military 1995
top of page


Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $7.2 billion, 2.2% of GDP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Australia - Transportation 1995
top of page


National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 480
With paved runways over 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 128
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 125
With paved runways under 914 m: 31
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 23
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 149

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 128
914 to 1523 m: 125
Under 914 m: 31

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 23
914 to 1523 m: 149

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Merchant marine
Total: 81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,620,536 GRT/3,801,970 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 2, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1

Ports and terminals


Australia - Transnational issues 1995
top of page


Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


Numa


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it