Statistical information Bangladesh 1995Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bangladesh in the World
Bangladesh in the World

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Bangladesh - Introduction 1995
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Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. A third of this desperately poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy season hampering normal economic development.


Bangladesh - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia

Area
Total area total: 144,000 km²
Land: 133,910 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March; hot, humid summer (March to June; cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 67%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 4%
Forest and woodland: 16%
Other: 11%

Irrigated land: 27,380 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bangladesh - People 1995
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Population: 128,094,948 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Bangladeshi(s)
Adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 40% (female 25,195,262; male 26,352,299)
15-64 years: 57% (female 34,862,105; male 37,867,705)
65 years and over: 3% (female 1,761,336; male 2,056,241) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.62 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.43 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Current issues natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 104.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.46 years
Male: 55.69 years
Female: 55.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 35%
Male: 47%
Female: 22%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bangladesh - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
Conventional short form: Bangladesh
Former: East Pakistan

Government type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991); election last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results - Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
Head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20 March 1991)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Parliament Jatiya Sangsad: elections last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held by February 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, BCP 5, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Humayun KABIR
In the us chancery: 2,201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-8,372 through 8,376
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David N. MERRILL
From the us embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
From the us mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
From the us telephone: [880] (2) 884,700 through 884,722
From the us FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag descriptionflag of Bangladesh: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bangladesh - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural, with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice crops and expansion of the export garment industry led to real growth of 4% in 1992 and again in 1993. Policy measures intended to reduce government regulation of private industry, to curb population growth, and to expand employment opportunities have had only partial success given the serious nature of Bangladesh's basic problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth of exports; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products - jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (FY92/93 est.), accounts for 9.4% of GDP

Labor force: 50.1 million
By occupation agriculture: 65%
By occupation services: 21%
By occupation industry and mining: 14% (1989)
Note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $2.8 billion
Expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (FY92/93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.38 billion (1993)
Commodoties: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
Partners: US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY91/92 est.)

Imports: $3.99 billion (1993)
Commodoties: capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
Partners: Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1% (FY91/92 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $13.5 billion (June 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.250 (January 1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990)


Bangladesh - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.2 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 70 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bangladesh - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 241,250 telephones; 1 telephone/522 persons; poor domestic telephone service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations; adequate international radio communications and landline service

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bangladesh - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $448 million, 1.7% of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bangladesh - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 7

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 7

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Merchant marine
Total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 293,304 GRT/428,013 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 31, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3

Ports and terminals


Bangladesh - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


Undercover Tourist


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