Statistical information Bolivia 1995Bolivia

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Bolivia in the World
Bolivia in the World


Bolivia - Introduction 1995
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Background: Bolivia broke away from Spanish rule in 1825. Its subsequent history has been marked by a seemingly endless series of coups, counter-coups, and abrupt changes in leaders and policies. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but the leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, strikes, and drug dealing. Current issues include encouraging and negotiating the terms for foreign investment; strengthening the educational system; continuing the privatization program; pursuing judicial reform and an anti-corruption campaign.

Bolivia - Geography 1995
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Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America

Total area total: 1,098,580 km²
Land: 1,084,390 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin


Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 25%
Forest and woodland: 52%
Other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,650 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

Bolivia - People 1995
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Population: 7,896,254 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Noun: Bolivian(s)
Adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and Indian ancestry) 25%-30%, European 5%-15%

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 39% (female 1,542,931; male 1,565,624)
15-64 years: 57% (female 2,276,308; male 2,188,100)
65 years and over: 4% (female 174,419; male 148,872) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.61 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.12 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Current issues natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March to April)
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 70.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.85 years
Male: 61.39 years
Female: 66.43 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 72%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bolivia - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
Conventional short form: Bolivia
Local long form: Republica de Bolivia
Local short form: Bolivia

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government; Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento; Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married; 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993); election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ left the coalition in 1994
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by the Senate

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Chamber of Deputies Camara de Diputados: elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN 17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PCD 1
Chamber of Senators Camara de Senadores: elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC Raznatovic
In the us chancery: 3,014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,410 through 4,412
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-3,712
In the us consulates general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Curt Warren KAMMAN
From the us embassy: Avenida Arce 2,780, San Jorge, La Paz
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34,032
From the us telephone: [591] (2) 430,251
From the us FAX: [591] (2) 4,339,000

Flag descriptionflag of Bolivia: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bolivia - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: With its long history of semifeudal social controls, dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has vowed to advance the market-oriented economic reforms he helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes so far have included an inflation rate that continues to decrease - the 1994 rate of 8.5% was the lowest in ten years - the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico, and progress on his unique privatization plan. The main privatization bill was passed by the Bolivian legislature in late March 1994. Related laws - one that establishes SIRESE, the regulatory agency that will oversee the privatizations, and another that outlines the rules for privatization in the electricity sector - were approved later in the year.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries; principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its revenues

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 3.54 million
By occupation agricultureNA servicesandutilities: 20%
By occupation miningand construction: 7% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $3.75 billion
Expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2 million (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%, wood 8%
Partners: US 26%, Argentina 15% (1993 est.)

Imports: $1.21 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5% (1993 est.)
Partners: US 24%, Argentina 13%, Brazil 11%, Japan 11% (1993 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.2 billion (January 1995)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.72 (January 1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990)

Bolivia - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.116 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 367 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bolivia - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: about 150,000 telephones; about 2.0 telephones/100 persons; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones in La Paz and other cities; microwave radio relay system being expanded; improved international services
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay system
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bolivia - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $134 million; 1.9% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bolivia - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,382
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 1,016
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 77
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 275

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1,016

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2438 m: 77
914 to 1523 m: 275


Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km



Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Merchant marine: total:1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT

Ports and terminals

Bolivia - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated 48,100 hectares under cultivation in 1994; voluntary and forced eradication programs unable to prevent production from rising to 89,800 metric tons in 1994 from 84,400 tons in 1993; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

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