Statistical information Burundi 1995Burundi

Map of Burundi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Burundi in the World
Burundi in the World

Burundi - Introduction 1995
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Background: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire.

Burundi - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Total area total: 27,830 km²
Land: 25,650 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season from June to September

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains


Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 8%
Meadows and pastures: 35%
Forest and woodland: 2%
Other: 12%

Irrigated land: 720 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

Burundi - People 1995
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Population: 6,262,429 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Noun: Burundian(s)
Adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups
Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
NonAfricans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 48% (female 1,489,721; male 1,494,730)
15-64 years: 50% (female 1,606,307; male 1,498,021)
65 years and over: 2% (female 105,446; male 68,204) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.35 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 21.51 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)
Note: in a number of waves since April 1994, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire; the refugee flows are continuing in 1995 as the ethnic violence has persisted

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Current issues natural hazards: flooding, landslides
Current issues international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 111.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 39.86 years
Male: 37.84 years
Female: 41.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 50%
Male: 61%
Female: 40%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Burundi - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
Conventional short form: Burundi
Local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
Local short form: Burundi

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch: chief of state:President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (since September 1994)
Note: President Melchior NDADAYE, Burundi's first democratically elected president, died in the military coup of 21 October 1993 and was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien NTARYAMIRA, who was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6 April 1994
Head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February 1995); selected by President NTIBANTUNGANYA following the resignation of Anatole KANYENKIKO on 15 February 1995
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly Assemblee Nationale: elections last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA); results - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly
Note: The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February 1991

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: post vacant since recall of Ambassador Jacques BACAMURWANKO in November 1994
In the us chancery: Suite 212, 2,233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-2,574
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER
From the us embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
From the us mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
From the us telephone: [257] (2) 23,454
From the us FAX: [257] (2) 22,926

Flag descriptionflag of Burundi: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Burundi - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic development, Burundi since October 1993 has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence that has displaced an estimated million people, disrupted production, and set back needed reform programs. Burundi is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government budgetary practices. Although the government remains committed to reforms, it fears new austerity measures would add to ethnic tensions.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -13.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cotton, tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (1991 est.), accounts for about 15% of GDP

Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 93.0%
By occupation government: 4.0%
By occupation industry and commerce: 1.5%
By occupation services: 1.5%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $318 million
Expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $68 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
Partners: EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%

Imports: $203 million (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodoties: capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Partners: EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 248.51 (December 1994), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)

Burundi - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 100 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Burundi - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 8,000 telephones; primative system; telephone density - 1.3 telephones/1000 persons
Local: NA
Intercity: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay links
International: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Burundi - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $25 million, 2.6% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Burundi - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 2





Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Burundi - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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