Statistical information Canada 1995Canada

Map of Canada | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Canada - Introduction 1995
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, from 1867 on Canada has enjoyed de facto independence while retaining, even to the present day, certain formal ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.


Canada - Geography 1995
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Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total area total: 9,976,140 km²
Land: 9,220,970 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries: total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 3%
Forest and woodland: 35%
Other: 57%

Irrigated land: 8,400 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border


Canada - People 1995
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Population: 28,434,545 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Religions: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21% (female 2,874,705; male 3,016,050)
15-64 years: 67% (female 9,529,272; male 9,531,107)
65 years and over: 12% (female 2,022,324; male 1,461,087) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.74 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.55 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Current issues natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.29 years
Male: 74.93 years
Female: 81.81 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
Total population: 97%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Canada - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was elected on 25 October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila COPPS
Cabinet: Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate Senat: consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
House of Commons Chambre des Communes: elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A.J. CHRETIEN
In the us chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,001
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 682-7,726
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
In the us consulates: Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD
From the us embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 5,000, Ogdensburg, NY 13,669-0430
From the us telephone: [1] (613) 238-5,335, 4,470
From the us FAX: [1] (613) 238-5,720
From the us consulates general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Canada - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects, although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt. Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.5% (1994)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley; key source of US agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1993)

Labor force: 13.38 million
By occupation services: 75%
By occupation manufacturing: 14%
By occupation agriculture: 4%
By occupation construction: 3%
By occupation other: 4% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $85 billion (Federal)
Expenditures: $115.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $164.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
Partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports: $151.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
Partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $243 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4129 (January 1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990)


Canada - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 511 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Canada - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 18,000,000 telephones; excellent service provided by modern media
Local: NA
Intercity: about 300 earth stations for domestic satellite communications
International: 5 coaxial submarine cables; 5 INTELSAT earth stations (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Canada - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $9.0 billion, 1.6% of GDP (FY95/96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Canada - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,386
With paved runways over 3047 m: 17
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 16
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 147
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 234
With paved runways under 914 m: 550
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 69
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 353

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 17
2438 to 3047 m: 16
15-24 to 2437 m: 147
914 to 1523 m: 234
Under 914 m: 550

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 69
914 to 1523 m: 353

Heliports

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Merchant marine
Total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 617,010 GRT/878,819 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 23, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
Note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes

Ports and terminals


Canada - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market


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