Statistical information Chad 1995Chad

Map of Chad | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Chad in the World
Chad in the World

Corel


Chad - Introduction 1995
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Background: After enduring decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December 1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of the country, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad.


Chad - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total area total: 1.284 million km²
Land: 1,259,200 km²
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 36%
Forest and woodland: 11%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel


Chad - People 1995
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Population: 5,586,505 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Chadian(s)
Adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups
North and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
South: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 44% (female 1,198,619; male 1,267,470)
15-64 years: 54% (female 1,563,678; male 1,456,481)
65 years and over: 2% (female 71,971; male 28,286) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.05 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 20.26 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Current issues natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 129.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 41.19 years
Male: 40.04 years
Female: 42.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over has the ability to read and write in French and Arabic (1990 est.)
Total population: 30%
Male: 42%
Female: 18%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Chad - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Chad
Conventional short form: Chad
Local long form: Republique du Tchad
Local short form: Tchad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture; Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 22 December 1989 (suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991 is in effect (note - the constitutional commission, which was drafting a new constitution to submit to transitional parliament for ratification in April 1994, failed to do so but expects to submit a new draft to the parliament before the end of April 1995)

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age NA

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990 (after seizing power on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's mandate expires April 1996)
Head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April 1995)
Cabinet: Council of State; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Consultative Council Conceil National Consultatif: elections, formerly scheduled for April 1995, were postponed by mutual agreement of the parties concerned until some time prior to April 1996; elections last held 8 July 1990; the National Consultative Council was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National Conference on 6 April 1993

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
In the us chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 462-4,009
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence E. POPE II
From the us embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
From the us mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
From the us telephone: [235] (51) 62 18, (51) 40 09, (51) 47 59
From the us FAX: [235] (51) 33 72

Flag descriptionflag of Chad: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Chad - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than 80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases for cotton - the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to dampen economic enterprise by neglecting payments to domestic suppliers and public sector salaries. Oil production in the Lake Chad area remains a distant prospect and the subsistence-driven economy probably will continue to limp along in the near term.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (1992 est.), accounts for nearly 15% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding and fishing)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $120 million
Expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104 million (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodoties: cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
Partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $261 million (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodoties: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
Partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $492 million (December 1990 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
Note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948


Chad - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 80 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Chad - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones; primitive system
Local: NA
Intercity: fair system of radio communication stations for intercity links
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Chad - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $74 million, 11.1% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Chad - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 66
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 23
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 17
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 21

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 23

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2438 m: 17
914 to 1523 m: 21

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Chad - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 km² Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Undercover Tourist


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