Statistical information Comoros 1995Comoros

Map of Comoros | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Comoros in the World
Comoros in the World

Undercover Tourist

Comoros - Introduction 1995
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Background: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving political stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since receiving independence from France in 1975.

Comoros - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Total area total: 2,170 km²
Land: 2,170 km²
Comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills


Natural resources: negligible
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 35%
Permanent crops: 8%
Meadows and pastures: 7%
Forest and woodland: 16%
Other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

Comoros - People 1995
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Population: 549,338 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 3.56% (1995 est.)

Noun: Comoran(s)
Adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 48% (female 131,334; male 132,327)
15-64 years: 49% (female 137,083; male 133,629)
65 years and over: 3% (female 7,860; male 7,105) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.56% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.22 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Current issues natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season (December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 77.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 58.27 years
Male: 56.04 years
Female: 60.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Total population: 48%
Male: 56%
Female: 40%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Comoros - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Conventional short form: Comoros
Local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
Local short form: Comores

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
Note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); election last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
Head of government: Prime Minister Halifa HOUMADI (since 13 October 1994); note - HOUMADI is the fifteenth prime minister appointed by President DJOHAR in the last three years
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Federal Assembly Assemblee Federale: elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) Ruling Coalition:RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition:UDZIMA 8, other smaller parties 10; 2 seats remained unfilled

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ahamadu DJIMBANAO (ambassador to the US and Canada)
In the us chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10,017
In the us telephone: [1] (212) 972-8,010
In the us FAX: [1] (212) 983-4,712
From the us: none; ambassador to Port Louis, Mauritius, is accredited to Comoros

Flag descriptionflag of Comoros: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing upward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros; the design, the most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Comoros - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export - vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.), accounts for 6% of GDP

Labor force: 140,000 (1982)
By occupation agriculture: 80%
By occupation government: 3%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $83 million
Expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32 million (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
Partners: US 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5% (1992)

Imports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement, consumer goods
Partners: France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $160 million (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 297.07 (January 1995), 416.40 (1994), 254.57 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
Note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since 1948

Comoros - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 17 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Comoros - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: over 1,800 telephones; sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion
Local: NA
Intercity: high frequency radio and microwave radio relay
International: high frequency radio

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Comoros - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Comoros - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals

Comoros - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: claims French-administered Mayotte

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Volotea Air

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