Statistical information Czech Republic 1995Czech%20Republic

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Czech Republic - Introduction 1995
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Background: Once part of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Czechoslovakia became an independent nation at the end of World War I. Independence ended with the German takeover in 1939. After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, and in 1968 an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops snuffed out anti-communist demonstrations and riots. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1991, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into its two ethnic components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic, largely by aspiring to become a NATO and EU member, has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks. But Prague has had a difficult time convincing the public that membership in NATO is crucial to Czech security. At the same time, support for eventual EU membership is waning. Coupled with the country's worsening economic situation, Prague's political scene, troubled for the past three years, will remain so for the foreseeable future.


Czech Republic - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area
Total area total: 78,703 km²
Land: 78,645 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: two main regions:Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the east, consisting of very hilly country

Elevation

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: NA%
Permanent crops: NA%
Meadows and pastures: NA%
Forest and woodland: NA%
Other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe


Czech Republic - People 1995
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Population: 10,432,774 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.26% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Czech(s)
Adjective: Czech
Note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19% (female 981,918; male 1,030,003)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,529,411; male 3,530,112)
65 years and over: 13% (female 848,599; male 512,731) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.46 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.85 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia centered around Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.54 years
Male: 69.87 years
Female: 77.41 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: can read and write
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Czech Republic - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Czech Republic
Conventional short form: Czech Republic
Local long form: Ceska Republika
Local short form: Cechy

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular; Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993); election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav HAVEL elected by the National Council
Head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Council (Narodni rada)
Senate: elections not yet held; seats (81 total)
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 5-6 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA given breakup and realignment of all parliamentary opposition parties since 1992; seats - (200 total) governing coalition:ODS 65, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15, opposition:CSSD 18, LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMSS 9, SPR-RSC 6, independents 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
In the us chancery: 3,900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 363-6,315, 6,316
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 966-8,540
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian A. BASORA
From the us embassy: Trziste 15, 11,801 Prague 1
From the us mailing address: Unit 1330; APO AE 9,213-1330
From the us telephone: [42] (2) 2,451-0847
From the us FAX: [42] (2) 2,451-1001

Flag descriptionflag of Czech%20Republic: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Czech Republic - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: The government of the Czech Republic, using successful stabilization policies to bolster its claims to full membership in the western economic community, has reduced inflation to 10%, kept unemployment at 3%, balanced the budget, run trade surpluses, and reoriented exports to the EU since the breakup of the Czechoslovak federation on 1 January 1993. GDP grew 2% in 1994 after stagnating in 1993 and contracting nearly 20% since 1990. Prague's mass privatization program, including its innovative distribution of ownership shares to Czech citizens via 'coupon vouchers,' has made the most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. When coupon shares are distributed in early 1995, 75%-80% of the economy will be in private hands or partially privatized, according to the Czech government. Privatized companies still face major problems in restructuring; the number of annual bankruptcies quadrupled in 1994. In September 1994, Prague repaid $471 million in IMF loans five years ahead of schedule, making the Czech Republic the first East European country to pay off all IMF debts. Despite these outlays, hard-currency reserves in the banking system totaled more than $8.5 billion in October. Standard & Poor's boosted the Republic's credit rating to BBB+ in mid-1994 - up from a BBB rating that was already two steps higher than Hungary's and one step above Greece's rating. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, at least 3% GDP growth, 5% unemployment, and single-digit inflation for 1995. Inflationary pressures - primarily as a result of foreign bank lending to Czech enterprises but perhaps also due to eased currency convertibility controls - are likely to be the most troublesome issues in 1995. Continuing economic recovery in Western Europe should boost Czech exports and production but a substantial increase in prices could erode the Republic's comparative advantage in low wages and exchange rates. Prague already took steps in 1994 to increase control over banking policies to neutralize the impact of foreign inflows on the money supply. Although Czech unemployment is currently the lowest in Central Europe, it will probably increase 1-2 percentage points in 1995 as large state firms go bankrupt or are restructured and service sector growth slows.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (January-September 1994)

Labor force: 5.389 million
By occupation industry: 37.9%
By occupation agriculture: 8.1%
By occupation construction: 8.8%
By occupation communicationsandother: 45.2% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.2% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $14 billion
Expenditures: $13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, minerals, metals, agricultural products (January-November 1994)
Partners: Germany 28.7%, Slovakia 15.5%, Austria 7.9%, Italy 6.4%, France 3.2%, Russia 3.2%, Poland 3.1%, UK 2.9%, Netherlands 2.4%, Hungary 2.2%, US 2.1%, Belgium 1.3% (January-June 1994)

Imports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials, agricultural products (January-November 1994)
Partners: Germany 24.1%, Slovakia 15.6%, Russia 9.8%, Austria 7.6%, Italy 4.9%, France 3.6%, US 3.2%, Netherlands 2.9%, UK 2.8%, Poland 2.7%, Switzerland 2.2%, Belgium 2.0% (January-June 1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $8.7 billion (October 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.762 (January 1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990)
Note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates


Czech Republic - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 56.3 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Czech Republic - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Czech Republic - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 27 billion koruny, NA% of GNP (1994 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Czech Republic - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 116
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With paved runways under 914 m: 5
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 41

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
Under 914 m: 5

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2438 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 41

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Merchant marine
Total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,646 GRT/282,296 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 9

Ports and terminals


Czech Republic - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for l,600 square kilometers of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918; Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II versus the Czech Republic claims that restitution does not preceed before February 1948 when the Communists seized power; unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former Czechoslovak federal government

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe


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