Statistical information Estonia 1995Estonia

Map of Estonia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Estonia in the World
Estonia in the World

Trusted Tours

Estonia - Introduction 1995
top of page

Background: In and out of Swedish and Russian control over the centuries, this little Baltic state was re-incorporated into the USSR after German occupation in World War II. Independence came with the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the last Russian troops left in 1994. Estonia thus became free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. The position of ethnic Russians (29% of the population) is an issue of concern to Moscow.

Estonia - Geography 1995
top of page

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope

Total area total: 45,100 km²
Land: 43,200 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Land boundaries: total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands


Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 22%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 11%
Forest and woodland: 31%
Other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Estonia - People 1995
top of page

Population: 1,625,399 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.53% (1995 est.)

Noun: Estonian(s)
Adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Religions: Lutheran

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22% (female 174,304; male 181,101)
15-64 years: 65% (female 549,473; male 515,426)
65 years and over: 13% (female 139,722; male 65,373) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.53% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.9 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.31 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
Current issues natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.17 years
Male: 65.2 years
Female: 75.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 1995
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
Conventional short form: Estonia
Local long form: Eesti Vabariik
Local short form: Eesti
Former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
Note: county centers are in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held fall 1996); results - no candidate received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21 October 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Andres TARAND (since NA October 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, authorized by the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament Riigikogu: elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1998); results - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats - (101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES
In the us chancery: 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005, Suite 1000
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 789-0320
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 789-0471
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith SMITH
From the us embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [372] (2) 312-021 through 024
From the us FAX: [372] (2) 312-025

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 1995
top of page

Economy overview: Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, the Estonian government has pursued an ambitious program of market reforms and stabilization measures, which is rapidly transforming the economy. Three years after independence - and two years after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to reap tangible benefits; inflation, though still high, was brought down to about 2% per month in second half 1994; production declines have bottomed out with estimated growth of 4% in 1994; and living standards are rising. Economic restructuring has been dramatic. By 1994 the service sector accounted for over 55% of GDP, while the once-dominant heavy industrial sector continues to shrink. The private sector is growing rapidly; the share of the state enterprises in the economy has steadily declined and by late 1994 accounted for only about 40% of GDP. Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West; the Western industrialized countries now account for two-thirds of foreign trade.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 10% of GDP; employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: -27% (1993)

Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
By occupation industry and construction: 42%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 20%
By occupation other: 38% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: about 2% in 1994 (official estimate but large number of underemployed workers)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $643 million
Expenditures: $639 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.65 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993)
Partners: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Germany

Imports: $1 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993)
Partners: Finland, Russia, Germany, Sweden

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $650 million (end of 1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 12.25 (January 1995; note - kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Estonia - Energy 1995
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.3 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 1995
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: about 400,000 telephones; 246 telephones/1000 persons; telephone system is antiquated; improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for telephone service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international traffic is carried to the other former USSR republics by land line or microwave and to other countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch, and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber optic submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; substantial investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational throughout Estonia and also Latvia and which have access to the international packet switched digital network via Helsinki

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 1995
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $34.1 million, almost 5% of the overall State budget and 1.5% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 1995
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 22
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 7
914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 5


Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)



Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 415,332 GRT/532,749 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 44, container 2, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 4

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 1995
top of page

Disputes international: claims over 2,000 km² of Russian territory in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary established under the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it