Statistical information Ethiopia 1995Ethiopia

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Ethiopia in the World
Ethiopia in the World

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Ethiopia - Introduction 1995
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Background: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995

Ethiopia - Geography 1995
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Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Total area total: 1,127,127 km²
Land: 1,119,683 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley


Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 41%
Forest and woodland: 24%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 1,620 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

Ethiopia - People 1995
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Population: 55,979,018 (July 1995 est.)
Note: Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth rate, include Eritrea
Growth rate: 3.09% (1995 est.)

Noun: Ethiopian(s)
Adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 46% (female 12,782,345; male 12,802,187)
15-64 years: 52% (female 14,352,059; male 14,511,342)
65 years and over: 2% (female 815,974; male 715,111) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.68 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.77 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)
Note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees from Sudan, Kenya and Somalia, where they had taken refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to continue in 1995; additional influxes of Sudanese and Somalis fleeing fighting in their countries can be expected in 1995

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine
Current issues natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 120.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 50 years
Male: 48.28 years
Female: 51.78 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
Total population: 24%
Male: 33%
Female: 16%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ethiopia - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Ethiopia
Local long form: none
Local short form: Ityop'iya

Government type: transitional government
Note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional elections are scheduled for May 1995; the administrative regions will elect regional assemblies by popular vote; the National Assembly will have two chambers - one elected by popular vote and the other selected as representatives by the regional assemblies; the lower house of the National Assembly will select or confirm the president, the prime minister and the cabinet officers and judges; the prime minister will be the chief executive officer and the duties of the president will be mostly ceremonial

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 14 ethnically-based administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela, Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Hareri, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidama, Somali, Tigray, Wolayta
Note: the following named four administrative regions may have been abolished and their territories distributed among the remaining ten regions:Kefa, Omo, Sidama, and Wolayta

Dependent areas

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); appointed by the Council of Representatives following the military defeat of the MENGISTU government; following the elections to the National Assembly scheduled for May 1995 the lower house of the National Assembly will nominate a new president
Head of government: Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991); a new prime minister will be designated by the party in power following the elections to the General Assembly in May 1995
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; presently designated by the chairman of the Council of Representatives; under the new constitution and following the elections in May 1995 the cabinet officers will be selected by the prime minister

Legislative branch: Constituent Assembly:elections were held on 5 June 1994; results - government parties swept almost all seats; in December 1994 the Constituent Assembly ratified the new constitution with few changes; the new constitution prescribes two chambers for the new National Assembly - one which is elected by popular vote and one which represents the ethnic interests of the regional governments

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
In the us chancery: 2,134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-2,281, 2,282
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-7,950
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS
From the us embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
From the us telephone: [251] (1) 550,666
From the us FAX: [251] (1) 552,191

Flag descriptionflag of Ethiopia: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ethiopia - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state run. The government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants, and is implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads, water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected during years of civil strife.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 45% of GDP; export crops of coffee and oilseeds are grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production is at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: -3.3% (FY91/92; accounts for 12% of GDP

Labor force: 18 million
By occupation agricultureandanimalhusbandry: 80%
By occupation governmentand services: 12%
By occupation industry and construction: 8% (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.2 billion
Expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707 million (FY93/94)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $219.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: coffee, leather products, gold
Partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

Imports: $1.04 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
Partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.7 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.9500 (January 1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93; fixed at 2.070 before 1992; note - official rate pegged to the US$

Ethiopia - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.3 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ethiopia - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones; open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use
Local: NA
Intercity: open wire and microwave radio relay links
International: open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ethiopia - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $140 million, 4.1% of GDP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ethiopia - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 98
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 24
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 4
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 14
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 42

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 24

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2438 m: 14
914 to 1523 m: 42






Merchant marine
Total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 8, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Ports and terminals

Ethiopia - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and regional export

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