Statistical information Ghana 1995Ghana

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Ghana in the World

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Ghana - Introduction 1995
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Background: Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution restoring multiparty politics was approved in 1992.


Ghana - Geography 1995
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Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total area total: 238,540 km²
Land: 230,020 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,093 km, Burkina 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 7%
Meadows and pastures: 15%
Forest and woodland: 37%
Other: 36%

Irrigated land: 80 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)


Ghana - People 1995
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Population: 17,763,138 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 3.06% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Ghanaian(s)
Adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 46% (female 4,030,154; male 4,069,945)
15-64 years: 51% (female 4,638,451; male 4,494,533)
65 years and over: 3% (female 276,186; male 253,869) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.06% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.57 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.02 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Current issues natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 81.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.85 years
Male: 53.88 years
Female: 57.88 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 60%
Male: 70%
Female: 51%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ghana - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
Conventional short form: Ghana
Former: Gold Coast

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992) election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held November 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election, the National Democratic Congress won 198 of the total 200 seats and 2 seats were won by independents
Cabinet: Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by the Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held December 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election; the National Democratic Congress won 198 0f 200 total seats and independents won 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH
In the us chancery: 3,512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 686-4,520
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 686-4,527
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN (scheduled to leave in June 1995)
From the us embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
From the us telephone: [233] (21) 775,348, 775,349, 775,297, 775,298
From the us FAX: [233] (21) 776,008

Flag descriptionflag of Ghana: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ghana - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana is relatively well off, having twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Heavily reliant on international assistance, Ghana has made steady progress in liberalizing its economy since 1983. Overall growth continued at a rate of approximately 5% in 1994, due largely to increased gold, timber, and cocoa production - major sources of foreign exchange. The economy, however, continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 45% of GDP and employs 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Public sector wage increases, regional peacekeeping commitments, and the containment of internal unrest in the underdeveloped north have placed substantial demands on the government's budget and have led to inflationary deficit financing and a 27% depreciation of the cedi in 1994.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for almost 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% in manufacturing (1993; accounts for almost 15% of GDP

Labor force: 3.7 million
By occupation agriculture and fishing: 54.7%
By occupation industry: 18.7%
By occupation sales and clerical: 15.2%
By occupation services transportation and communications: 7.7%
By occupation professional: 3.7%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.05 billion
Expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $178 million (1993)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
Partners: Germany 31%, US 12%, UK 11%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5% (1991)

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
Partners: UK 22%, US 11%, Germany 9%, Japan 6%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.6 billion (December 1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1 - 1,046.74 (December 1994), 936.71 (1994), 649.06 (1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83 (1991), 326.33 (1990)


Ghana - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.1 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 323 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ghana - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 42,300 telephones; poor to fair system; telephone density - 2.4/1000 persons
Local: NA
Intercity: primarily microwave radio relay
International: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ghana - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $108 million, 1.5% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ghana - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 12
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 2

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 2

Heliports

Pipelines: none

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,427 GRT/35,894 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1

Ports and terminals


Ghana - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined for Europe and the US


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