Statistical information Greece 1995Greece

Map of Greece | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Greece in the World
Greece in the World

Economy Bookings


Greece - Introduction 1995
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Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 had suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country was itself overthrown seven years later. Democratic elections in 1974 abolished the monarchy and created a parliamentary republic; Greece joined the EU in 1981.


Greece - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total area total: 131,940 km²
Land: 130,800 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries: total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23%
Permanent crops: 8%
Meadows and pastures: 40%
Forest and woodland: 20%
Other: 9%

Irrigated land: 11,900 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands


Greece - People 1995
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Population: 10,647,511 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.72% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Greek(s)
Adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, other 2%
Note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Languages: Greek (official), English, French

Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18% (female 904,374; male 947,494)
15-64 years: 67% (female 3,601,029; male 3,565,931)
65 years and over: 15% (female 919,044; male 709,639) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.72% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.56 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.31 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.99 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; water pollution
Current issues natural hazards: severe earthquakes
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.92 years
Male: 75.39 years
Female: 80.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
Total population: 95%
Male: 98%
Female: 93%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Greece - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
Conventional short form: Greece
Local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
Local short form: Ellas
Former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos; Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region:Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)

Dependent areas

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Konstantinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995) election last held 10 March 1995 (next to be held by NA 2000); results - Konstantinos STEPHANOPOULOS was elected by Parliament
Head of government: Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10 October 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Chamber of Deputies Vouli ton Ellinon: elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1997); results - PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE 4.54%, and Progressive Left (replaced by Coalition of the Left and Progress) 2.94%; seats - (300 total) PASOK 170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, FAO, G- 6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Loucas TSILAS
In the us chancery: 2,221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-5,800
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 939-5,824
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
In the us consulates: New Orleans
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES
From the us embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10,160 Athens
From the us mailing address: PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 9,842
From the us telephone: [30] (1) 721-2,951, 8,401
From the us FAX: [30] (1) 645-6,282
From the us consulates general: Thessaloniki

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Greece - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Since then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of GDP. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged 1.6% a year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%. Inflation continues to be well above the EU average, and the national debt has reached 140% of GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister PAPANDREOU will probably make only limited progress correcting the economy's problems of high inflation, large budget deficit, and decaying infrastructure. His economic program suggests that although he will shun his expansionary policies of the 1980s, he will avoid tough measures needed to slow inflation or reduce the state's role in the economy. He has limited the previous government's privatization plans, for example, and has called for generous welfare spending and real wage increases. Athens continues to rely heavily on EU aid, which recently has amounted to about 6% of GDP. Greece almost certainly will not meet the EU's Maastricht Treaty convergence targets of public deficit held to 3% of GDP and national debt to 60% of GDP by 1999. Per capita GDP has fallen below Portugal's level, the lowest among EU members.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 12% of GDP; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs

Industries: tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1993 est.), accounts for 18% of GDP

Labor force: 4.077 million
By occupation services: 52%
By occupation agriculture: 23%
By occupation industry: 25% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.1% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $28.3 billion
Expenditures: $37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2 billion (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
Partners: Germany 24%, Italy 14%, France 7%, UK 6%, US 4% (1993)

Imports: $19.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
Partners: Germany 16%, Italy 14%, France 7%, Japan 7%, UK 6% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $26.9 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 238.20 (January 1995), 242.60 (1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990)


Greece - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 35.8 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 3,257 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Greece - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 4,080,000 telephones; adequate, modern networks reach all areas; microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine cables to off-shore islands
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay and open wire
International: tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT ground station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Greece - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.1 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Greece - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 79
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 16
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With paved runways under 914 m: 22
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 16
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 22

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine
Total: 1,046 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,076,911 GRT/53,618,024 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 469, cargo 105, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 21, combination ore/oil 31, container 40, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 239, passenger 14, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16, short-sea passenger 67, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
Note: ethnic Greeks also own 125 ships under Liberian registry, 323 under Panamanian, 705 under Cypriot, 351 under Maltese, and 100 under Bahamian

Ports and terminals


Greece - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over name, symbols, and certain constitutional provisions; Greece is involved in a bilateral dispute with Albania over border demarcation, the treatment of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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