Statistical information Haiti 1995Haiti

Map of Haiti | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Haiti in the World
Haiti in the World

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Haiti - Introduction 1995
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Background: One of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. Over three decades of dictatorship followed by military rule ended in 1990 when Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE was elected president. Most of his term was usurped by a military takeover but he was able to return to office in 1994.


Haiti - Geography 1995
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Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Total area total: 27,750 km²
Land: 27,560 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 13%
Meadows and pastures: 18%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 45%

Irrigated land: 750 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)


Haiti - People 1995
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Population: 6,539,983 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Haitian(s)
Adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto and European 5%

Languages: French (official) 10%, Creole

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 46% (female 1,490,939; male 1,535,607)
15-64 years: 50% (female 1,692,032; male 1,557,568)
65 years and over: 4% (female 133,291; male 130,546) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.64 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.65 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.99 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and use as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Current issues natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 107.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 44.77 years
Male: 43.04 years
Female: 46.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Total population: 35%
Male: 37%
Female: 32%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Haiti - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
Conventional short form: Haiti
Local long form: Republique d'Haiti
Local short form: Haiti

Government type: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular - departement; Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; October 1991, government claims to be observing the Constitution

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup in September 1991 but, with US military support, returned to power on 15 October 1994; election last held 16 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1995); results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE 4.9%
Head of government: Prime Minister Smarck MICHEL (since October 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet; chosen by prime minister in consultation with the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Senate: elections last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate (next to be held 25 June 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD 12, MIDH-PANPRA 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 2
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be held 25 June 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (83 total) FNCD 27, MIDH-PANPRA 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independents 5, other 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
In the us chancery: 2,311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-4,090 through 4,092
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 745-7,215
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
From the us embassy: Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
From the us telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
From the us FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag descriptionflag of Haiti: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Haiti - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs two-thirds of the work force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. The lack of employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability. International trade sanctions in response to the September 1991 coup against President ARISTIDE further damaged the economy. The restoration of President ARISTIDE, the lifting of sanctions in late 1994, and foreign aid will alleviate some economic problems. Haiti will continue to depend heavily on foreign aid.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -15% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 28% of GDP and employs two-thirds of work force; mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour

Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1991 est.), accounts for 15% of GDP

Labor force: 2.3 million
By occupation agriculture: 66%
By occupation services: 25%
By occupation industry: 9%
Note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $56 million
Expenditures: $131 million, including capital expenditures of $6 million (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $173.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
Partners: US 81%, Europe 12% (1993)

Imports: $476.8 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
Partners: US 51%, Europe 16%, Latin America 18% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $871 million (September 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 - 14.10 (1 December 1994), 12.00 (1 July 1993), 8.4 (December 1991), fixed rate of 5.000 through second quarter of 1991


Haiti - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 590 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 86 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Haiti - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 36,000 telephones; domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly better
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Haiti - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Haiti - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 6
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 6

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 5

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals


Haiti - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route to the US and Europe


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