Statistical information Hungary 1995Hungary

Map of Hungary | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Hungary - Introduction 1995
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Background: After World War II Hungary became part of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe, and its government and economy were refashioned on the communist model. Increased nationalist opposition, which culminated in the government's announcement of withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, led to massive military intervention by Moscow and the swift crushing of the revolt. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily moved toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary has developed close political and economic relations with western Europe.


Hungary - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area
Total area total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50.7%
Permanent crops: 6.1%
Meadows and pastures: 12.6%
Forest and woodland: 18.3%
Other: 12.3%

Irrigated land: 1,750 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin


Hungary - People 1995
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Population: 10,318,838 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.02% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Hungarian(s)
Adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18% (female 918,281; male 958,027)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,534,218; male 3,440,036)
65 years and over: 14% (female 914,221; male 554,055) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.65 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.44 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of Lake Balaton
Current issues natural hazards: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 11.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.9 years
Male: 67.94 years
Female: 76.06 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Hungary - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Conventional short form: Hungary
Local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros; Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president from 2 May 1990); election last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ elected by parliamentary vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly with a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President from 2 May 1990 until elected President
Head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly on recommendation of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly Orszaggyules: elections last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held spring 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) MSzP 209, SzDSz 70, MDF 37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22, FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI (since 27 October 1994)
In the us chancery: 3,910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 362-6,730
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 966-8,135
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald M. BLINKEN
From the us embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
From the us mailing address: Am Embassy, Unit 1320, Budapest; APO AE 9,213-1320
From the us telephone: [36] (1) 112-6,450
From the us FAX: [36] (1) 132-8,934

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Hungary - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Since 1989 Hungary has been a leader in the transition from a socialist command economy to a market economy - thanks in large part to its initial economic reforms during the Communist era. The private sector now accounts for about 55% of GDP. Nonetheless, the transformation is proving difficult, and many citizens say life was better under the old system. On the bright side, the four-year decline in output finally ended in 1994, as real GDP increased an estimated 3%. This growth helped reduce unemployment to just over 10% by yearend, down from a peak of 13%. However, no progress was made against inflation, which remained stuck at about 20%, and the already-large current account deficit in the balance of payments actually got worse, reaching almost $4 billion. Underlying Hungary's other economic problems is the large budget deficit, which probably exceeded 7% of GDP in 1994, despite some late-year budget cutting by the new leftist government. In 1995 the government has pledged to accelerate privatization and lower the budget deficit to 5.5% of GDP. It believes this fiscal tightening will reduce the current account deficit to $2.5 billion but at the cost of holding economic growth to only 1%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 5.4 million
By occupation services trade government andother: 44.8%
By occupation industry: 29.7%
By occupation agriculture: 16.1%
By occupation construction: 7.0% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.4% (yearend 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $11.3 billion
Expenditures: $14.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: raw materials and semi-finished goods 30.0%, machinery and transport equipment 20.1%, consumer goods 25.2%, food and agriculture 21.4%, fuels and energy 3.4% (1993)
Partners: Germany 25.3%, Italy 8.3%, Austria 10.5%, the FSU 14.0%, US 4.3% (1993)

Imports: $14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: fuels and energy 12.6%, raw materials and semi-finished goods 27.3%, machinery and transport equipment 33.0%, consumer goods 21.2%, food and agriculture 5.9% (1993)
Partners: Germany 21.5%, Italy 6.1%, Austria 11.8%, the FSU 20.9%, US 4.3% (1993; note - about one-fourth of the imports from the FSU were MiGs delivered as a debt payment

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $27 billion (September 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 112 (January 1995), 105.16 (1994), 91.93 (1993), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)


Hungary - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 31 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 3,012 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Hungary - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,520,000 phones; 14.7 telephones/100 inhabitants (1993); 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; 608,000 telephones on order; 12-15 year wait for a telephone; 49% of all phones are in Budapest (1991)
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay
International: 1 INTELSAT and Intersputnik earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Hungary - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 66.5 billion forints, NA% of GDP (1994 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Hungary - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 78
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 9
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 34

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
Under 914 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2438 m: 9
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 34

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Merchant marine: total:10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,121 GRT/61,613 DWT

Ports and terminals


Hungary - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals


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