Statistical information Italy 1995Italy

Map of Italy | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Italy in the World
Italy in the World

Numa


Italy - Introduction 1995
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Background: Italy failed to secure political unification until the 1860s, thus lacking the military and imperial power of Spain, Britain, and France. The fascist dictatorship of MUSSOLINI after World War I, led to the disastrous alliance with HITLER's Germany and defeat in World War II. Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC) and joined in the growing political and economic unification of Western Europe. On-going problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of Southern Italy compared with the North.


Italy - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total area total: 301,230 km²
Land: 294,020 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arizona
Note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Land boundaries: total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 4,996 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Elevation

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 10%
Meadows and pastures: 17%
Forest and woodland: 22%
Other: 19%

Irrigated land: 31,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe


Italy - People 1995
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Population: 58,261,971 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.21% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Italian(s)
Adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south), Sicilians, Sardinians

Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15% (female 4,352,325; male 4,603,083)
15-64 years: 68% (female 19,969,086; male 19,874,528)
65 years and over: 17% (female 5,630,747; male 3,832,202) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.21% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.89 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.78 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Current issues natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.4 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.85 years
Male: 74.67 years
Female: 81.23 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Italy - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Italian Republic
Conventional short form: Italy
Local long form: Repubblica Italiana
Local short form: Italia
Former: Kingdom of Italy

Government type: republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione; Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the President of the Council of Ministers) Lamberto DINI (since 1 February 1995)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the President of the Council (i.e., Prime Minister) and approved by the President of the Republic

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento)
Senate Senato della Repubblica: elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next must be held by spring 1999, but may be held by end of 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (326 total, 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) PDS 61, Northern League 60, National Alliance 48, Forza Italia 36, Italian Popular Party 31, Communist Refoundation 18, Greens and The Network 13, Italian Socialists 13, Christian Democratic Center 12, Democratic Alliance 8, Christian Socialists 5, Pact for Italy 4, Radical Party (Pannella List) 1, others 5
Chamber of Deputies Camera dei Deputati: elections last held 27-28 March 1994 (next must be held by spring 1999, but may be held by end of 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (630 total) Northern League 117, PDS 114, Forza Italia 113, National Alliance 109, Communist Refoundation 39, Christian Democratic Center 33, Italian Popular Party 33, Greens and The Network 20, Democratic Alliance 18, Italian Socialists 16, Pact for Italy 13, Christian Socialists 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Boris BIANCHERI-CHIAPPORI
In the us chancery: 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 328-5,500
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
In the us consulates: Detroit and New Orleans
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Reginald BARTHOLOMEW
From the us embassy: Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
From the us mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, Rome; APO AE 9,624
From the us telephone: [39] (6) 46,741
From the us FAX: [39] (6) 4,882,672
From the us consulates general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag descriptionflag of Italy: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Italy - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Since World War II the Italian economy has changed from one based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 35%, agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. After growing at an average annual rate of 3% in 1983-90, growth slowed to about 1% in 1991 and 1992, fell by 0.7% in 1993, and recovered to 2% in 1994. In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to participate in EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the decade; thus it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances. Subsequently, the government has adopted fairly stringent budgets, abandoned its highly inflationary wage indexation system, and started to scale back its extremely generous social welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary officials were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary system in September 1992 when it came under extreme pressure in currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of pushing ahead with fiscal reform, refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the ongoing expansion and economic integration of the European Union.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 4% of GDP; self-sufficient in foods other than meat, dairy products, and cereals; principal crops - fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990

Industries: machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.), accounts for 35% of GDP

Labor force: 23.988 million
By occupation services: 58%
By occupation industry: 32.2%
By occupation agriculture: 9.8% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (January 1995)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $339 billion
Expenditures: $431 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $190.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals, other
Partners: EU 53.4%, US 7.8%, OPEC 3.8% (1994)

Imports: $168.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products
Partners: EU 56.3%, OPEC 5.3%, US 4.6% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $67 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,609.5 (January 1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990)


Italy - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 209 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 4,033 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Italy - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 25,600,000 telephones; modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
Local: NA
Intercity: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
International: international service by 21 submarine cables, 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3 Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Italy - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $21.5 billion, 2% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Italy - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 138
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 34
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 15
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 26
With paved runways under 914 m: 34
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 22

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 34
15-24 to 2437 m: 15
914 to 1523 m: 26
Under 914 m: 34

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 22

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value

Merchant marine
Total: 441 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,767,969 GRT/8,547,221 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 40, cargo 62, chemical tanker 34, combination ore/oil 3, container 18, liquefied gas tanker 37, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 136, passenger 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 8

Ports and terminals


Italy - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market


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