Statistical information Japan 1995Japan

Map of Japan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Japan in the World

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Japan - Introduction 1995
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Background: While retaining its time-honored culture Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians bureaucrats and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth.


Japan - Geography 1995
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Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean peninsula

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia

Area
Total area total: 377,835 km²
Land: 374,744 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than California
Note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Elevation

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 13%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 67%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: 28,680 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location in northeast Asia


Japan - People 1995
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Population: 125,506,492 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.32% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Japanese

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Languages: Japanese

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including 0.7% Christian)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16% (female 9,955,603; male 10,542,973)
15-64 years: 69% (female 43,377,425; male 43,843,645)
65 years and over: 15% (female 10,514,017; male 7,272,829) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.46 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan's appetite for fish and tropical timber is contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere
Current issues natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis
Current issues international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.44 years
Male: 76.6 years
Female: 82.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Japan - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Japan

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Dependent areas

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
Head of government: Prime Minister Tomiichi MURAYAMA (since 30 June 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Yohei KONO (since 30 June 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors and a lower house or House of Representatives
House of Councillors Sangiin: half of the members elected every three years to six-year terms; elections last held on 26 July 1992 (next set to be held 23 July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 106, SDPJ 73, Komeito 24, DSP 12, JCP 11, JNP 4, others 16, independents 6; note - the distribution of seats as of 1 April 1995 is as follows - LDP 94, SDPJ 68, Heisei-kai 47, Shin Ryokufu-kai 16, JCP 11, others 15, vacant 1
House of Representatives Shugiin: all members elected every four years to four-year terms; elections last held on 18 July 1993 (next to be held by 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511 total) LDP 223, SDPJ 70, Shinseito 55, Komeito 51, JNP 35, JCP 15, DSP 15, Sakigake 13, others 4, independents 30; note - the distribution of seats as of 1 April 1995 is as follows - LDP 207, Shinshinto 173, SDPJ 70, Sakigake 21, JCP 15, others 19, vacant 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNOMOZ, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA
In the us chancery: 2,520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-6,700
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-2,187
In the us consulates general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle
In the us consulates: Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE
From the us embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
From the us mailing address: Unit 45,004, Box 258, Tokyo; APO AP 96,337-0001
From the us telephone: [81] (3) 3,224-5,000
From the us FAX: [81] (3) 3,505-1862
From the us consulates general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
From the us consulates: Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag descriptionflag of Japan: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Japan - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (roughly 1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most powerful economy in the world. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular:a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic growth came to a halt in 1992-93 largely because of contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Growth resumed at a 0.6% pace in 1994 largely because of consumer demand. As for foreign trade, the stronger yen and slower global growth are containing export growth. Unemployment and inflation remain remarkably low in comparison with the other industrialized nations. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus - $121 billion in 1994, roughly the same size as in 1993 - which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. Prime Minister MURAYAMA has yet to formalize his government's plans for administrative and economic reform, including reduction in the trade surplus. As leader of a coalition government, he has softened his own socialist positions. The crowding of the habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.6% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991

Industries: steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment and components, machine tools and automated production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994; accounts for 30% of GDP

Labor force: 65.87 million (December 1994)
By occupation trade and services: 54%
By occupation and construction: 33%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 7%
By occupation government: 3% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $569 billion
Expenditures: $671 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about, 126 billion (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $395.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles 20%, consumer electronics 10%)
Partners: Southeast Asia 33%, US 29%, Western Europe 18%, China 5%

Imports: $274.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28%
Partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 23%, Western Europe 15%, China 9%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 99.75 (January 1995), 102.21 (1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990)


Japan - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 840 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 6,262 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Japan - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 64,000,000 telephones; excellent domestic and international service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 5 INTELSAT (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth stations; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and Russia

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Japan - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $47.2 billion, 1% of GDP (FY95/96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Japan - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 175
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 31
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 36
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 30
With paved runways under 914 m: 70
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 31
15-24 to 2437 m: 36
914 to 1523 m: 30
Under 914 m: 70

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 2

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Merchant marine
Total: 851 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,195,386 GRT/27,292,044 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 210, cargo 63, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 7, container 41, liquefied gas tanker 41, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 264, passenger 10, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 48, roll-on/roll-off cargo 43, short-sea passenger 30, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 79
Note: Japan owns an additional 1,537 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 45,490,202 DWT that operate under Panamanian, Liberian, Vanuatu, Bahamian, Singaporian, Cypriot, Philippines, Hong Kong, and Maltese registry

Ports and terminals


Japan - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Turbopass


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