Statistical information Kazakhstan 1995Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World


Kazakhstan - Introduction 1995
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Background: As a republic within the USSR (1920-91), Kazakhstan suffered greatly from Stalinist purges, from environmental damage, and saw the ethnic Russian portion of its population rise to 37% while other non-Kazakhs made up almost 20%. Current issues include the pace of market reform and privatization; fair and free elections and democratic reform; ethnic differences between Russians and Kazakhs; environmental problems; and how to convert the country's abundant energy resources into a better standard of living.

Kazakhstan - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States

Total area total: 2,717,300 km²
Land: 2,669,800 km²
Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia


Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: NEGL%
Meadows and pastures: 57%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 23,080 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked

Kazakhstan - People 1995
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Population: 17,376,615 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.62% (1995 est.)

Noun: Kazakhstani(s)
Adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek 2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population, Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds of population and used in everyday business

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 30% (female 2,589,509; male 2,664,952)
15-64 years: 63% (female 5,531,519; male 5,371,563)
65 years and over: 7% (female 820,900; male 398,172) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.62% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.26 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.11 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation practices
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.25 years
Male: 63.61 years
Female: 73.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kazakhstan - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: none
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Almaty

Administrative divisions: 19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular - qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy
Note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblys name

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV (since NA April 1990); Vice President Yerik ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991); election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed; note - NAZARBAYEV has extended his term to the year 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995
Head of government: Prime Minister Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since 12 October 1994); First Deputy Prime Ministers Nigmatzhan ISINGARIN (since 12 October 1994) and Vitalia METTE (since March 1995)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Council: elections last held 7 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) Union Peoples' Unity of Kazakhstan 33, Confederation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan 11, Peoples' Congress of Kazakhstan Party 9, Socialist Party of Kazakhstan 8, Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan 4, Social Movement LAD 4, Organization of Veterans 1, Union of Youth of Kazakhstan 1, Democratic Committee for Human Rights 1, Association of Lawyers of Kazakhstan 1, International Public Committee "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan" 1, Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan 1, Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet 40, independents 62
Note: the Supreme Council disbanded 12 March 1995 following a Constitutional Court ruling that the March 1994 elections were invalid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Tuleutai S. SULEYMENOV
In the us chancery: (temporary) 3,421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 333-4,504 through 4,507
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 333-4,509
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
From the us embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480,012
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [7] (3,272) 63-24-26
From the us FAX: [7] (3,272) 63-38-83

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kazakhstan - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil-fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. The government has pursued a moderate program of economic reform and privatization which is gradually lifting state controls over economic activity and shifting assets into the private sector. Nevertheless, government control over key sectors of the economy remains strong. Sustained economic hardships and continued pressures from industrial elites will make it difficult for the government to sustain its policies of monetary and fiscal discipline which had brought down inflation by the end of 1994. Continued lack of pipeline transportation for expanded oil exports has closed off a likely source of economic recovery.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -25% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 20% of GDP; employs about 26% of the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool

Industries: accounts for 26% of net national product; extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur), iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: -28% (1994)

Labor force: 7.356 million
By occupation industry and construction: 31%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 26%
By occupation other: 43% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.1% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.1 billion (1994)
Commodoties: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat, coal
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $3.5 billion (1994)
Commodoties: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas
Partners: Russia and other former Soviet republics, China

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: less than $1 billion debt to Russia

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 54 (yearend 1994)

Kazakhstan - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 65.1 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 3,750 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kazakhstan - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 2.2 million telephones; telephone service is poor; about 17 telephones/100 persons in urban areas and 7.6 telephones/100 persons in rural areas; Almaty has 184,000 telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: land line and microwave radio relay
International: international traffic with other former USSR republics and China carried by landline and microwave, and with other countries by satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits at the Moscow international gateway switch; INTELSAT earth station; new satellite earth station established at Almaty with Turkish financial help (December 1992) with 2,500 channel band width

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kazakhstan - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 69.3 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 352
With paved runways over 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 23
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 11
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 9
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 9
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 25
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 65
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 190

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 23
15-24 to 2437 m: 11
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 9

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2438 m: 25
914 to 1523 m: 65
Under 914 m: 190


Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)



Waterways: Syrdariya River, Ertis River

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Southwest Asia


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