Statistical information Kyrgyzstan 1995Kyrgyzstan

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Kyrgyzstan in the World

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Kyrgyzstan - Introduction 1995
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Background: A country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian empire in 1864. In the Czarist and Soviet periods, Russian managers and technicians were sent to Kyrgyzstan and have recently made up more than one-fifth of the population. Many Russians have been returning home since Kyrgyzstan gained its independence in 1991 when the USSR collapsed. Privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, and inter-ethnic relations are current issues.


Kyrgyzstan - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States

Area
Total area total: 198,500 km²
Land: 191,300 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley; temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Elevation

Natural resources: abundant hydroelectric potential; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: NEGL%
Meadows and pastures: 42%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 10,320 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked


Kyrgyzstan - People 1995
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Population: 4,769,877 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Kyrgyz(s)
Adjective: Kyrgyz

Ethnic groups: Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 21.5%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 8.3%

Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian widely used

Religions: Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 37% (female 868,108; male 888,479)
15-64 years: 57% (female 1,377,221; male 1,345,990)
65 years and over: 6% (female 185,807; male 104,272) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.97 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.32 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.66 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells, as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 45.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.13 years
Male: 63.92 years
Female: 72.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 97%
Male: 99%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Kyrgyzstan - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
Local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Local short form: none
Former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: 6 oblasttar (singular - oblast) and 1 city* (singular - shaar); Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
Note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblast name

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990); election last held 12 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Askar AKAYEV won in uncontested election with 95% of vote and with 90% of electorate voting; note - president elected by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990, then by popular vote 12 October 1991; AKAYEV won 96% of the vote in a referendum on his status as president on 30 January 1994
Head of government: Prime Minister Apas DJUMAGULOV (since NA December 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; subordinate to the president

Legislative branch: bicameral
Assembly of Legislatures: elections last held 5 February 1995 (next to be held no later than NA 1998); 35-member house to which 19 members have been elected so far; next round of runoffs scheduled for 19 April 1995
Assembly of Representatives: elections last held 5 February 1995 (next to be held no later than NA 1998); 70-member house to which 60 members have been elected so far; next round of runoffs scheduled for 19 April 1995
Note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Almas CHUKIN
In the us chancery: (temporary) Suite 705, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 347-3,732, 3,733, 3,718
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 347-3,718
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Eileen A. MALLOY
From the us embassy: Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720,002
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [7] (3,312) 22-29-20, 22-27-77, 22-26-31, 22-24-73
From the us FAX: [7] (3,312) 22-35-51

Flag descriptionflag of Kyrgyzstan: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Kyrgyzstan - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Kyrgyzstan is one of the smallest and poorest states of the former Soviet Union. Its economy is heavily agricultural, growing cotton and tobacco on irrigated land in the south and grain in the foothills of the north and raising sheep and goats on mountain pastures. Its small and obsolescent industrial sector, concentrated around Bishkek, has traditionally relied on Russia and other CIS countries for customers and industrial inputs, including most of its fuel. Since 1990, the economy has contracted by almost 50% as subsidies from Moscow vanished and trade links with other former Soviet republics eroded. At the same time, the Kyrgyz government stuck to tight monetary and fiscal policies in 1994 that succeeded in reducing inflation from 23% per month in 1993 to 5.4% per month in 1994. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has been the most successful of the Central Asian states in reducing state controls over the economy and privatizing state industries. Nevertheless, restructuring proved to be a slow and painful process in 1994 despite relatively large flows of foreign aid and continued progress on economic reform. The decline in output in 1995 may be much smaller, perhaps 5%, compared with an estimated 24% in 1994.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -24% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables, meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes

Industries: small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate: -24% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.836 million
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 38%
By occupation industry and construction: 21%
By occupation other: 41% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.7% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $116 million to countries outside the FSU (1994)
Commodoties: wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes, machinery, tobacco
Partners: Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others

Imports: $92.4 million from countries outside the FSU (1994)
Commodoties: grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery, textiles, footwear
Partners: other CIS republics

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: soms per US$1 - 10.6 (yearend 1994)


Kyrgyzstan - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 12.7 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,700 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Kyrgyzstan - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 342,000 telephones (1991); 76 telephones/1000 persons (December 1991); poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: principally by microwave radio relay
International: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; 1 GORIZONT and 1 INTELSAT satellite link through Ankara to 200 other countries

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Kyrgyzstan - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Kyrgyzstan - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 54
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 9
With paved runways under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 32

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 9
Under 914 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 32

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 200 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Kyrgyzstan - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Southwest Asia


Skytours


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