Statistical information Malaysia 1995Malaysia

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Malaysia - Introduction 1995
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Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore both of which formed West Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore seceded from the union in 1965.


Malaysia - Geography 1995
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Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo bordering the Java Sea and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total area total: 329,750 km²
Land: 328,550 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 10%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 63%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 3,420 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea


Malaysia - People 1995
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Population: 19,723,587 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.24% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Malaysian(s)
Adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%

Languages
Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil
Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate)
Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages *** No data for this item ***

Religions
Peninsular Malaysia: Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians)
Sabah: Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%
Sarawak: tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 37% (female 3,559,434; male 3,690,310)
15-64 years: 59% (female 5,871,131; male 5,844,568)
65 years and over: 4% (female 423,539; male 334,605) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.95 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.56 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
Current issues natural hazards: flooding
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.48 years
Male: 66.55 years
Female: 72.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 78%
Male: 86%
Female: 70%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Malaysia - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Malaysia
Former: Malayan Union

Government type: constitutional monarchy
Note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan; Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994); Deputy Paramount Ruler SALAHUDDIN ibni Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994)
Head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Paramount Ruler from members of parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen)
Senate Dewan Negara: consists of 58 members, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and 26 elected by the state legislatures (2 from each state) for six-year terms; elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - NA
House of Representatives Dewan Rakyat: consists of 180 members, elected for five-year terms; elections last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by December 1995); results - National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO won 71 seats and MCA won 18 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Abdul MAJID bin Mohamed
In the us chancery: 2,401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 328-2,700
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 483-7,661
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John S. WOLF
From the us embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50,400 Kuala Lumpur
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10,035, 50,700 Kuala Lumpur; APO AP 96,535-8,152
From the us telephone: [60] (3) 2,489,011
From the us FAX: [60] (3) 2,422,207

Flag descriptionflag of Malaysia: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Malaysia - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 9% average annual growth in 1988-94. The official growth target for 1995 is 8.5%. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Manufactured goods exports expanded rapidly, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8.7% (1994)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)
Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah: mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice
Sarawak: rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas

Industries
Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber
Sabah: logging, petroleum production
Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (1994; accounts for 38% of GDP (1993 est.)

Labor force: 7.627 million (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $18.7 billion
Expenditures: $19.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.8 billion (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $56.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles
Partners: Singapore 22%, US 20%, Japan 13%, UK 4%, Germany 4%, Thailand 4% (1993)

Imports: $55.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum products
Partners: Japan 27%, US 17%, Singapore 15%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%, UK 3%, South Korea 3% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $35.5 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.5542 (January 1995), 2.6242 (1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990)


Malaysia - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 31 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,528 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Malaysia - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 994,860 telephones (1984); international service good
Local: NA
Intercity: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; 2 domestic satellite links
International: submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Malaysia - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $2.1 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Malaysia - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 115
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 11
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6
With paved runways under 914 m: 82
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 11
914 to 1523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 82

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 7

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways
Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km
Sabah: 1,569 km
Sarawak: 2,518 km

Merchant marine
Total: 213 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,410,823 GRT/3,635,966 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 73, chemical tanker 11, container 27, liquefied gas tanker 9, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 50, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3

Ports and terminals


Malaysia - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug trafficking; increasing indigenous abuse of methamphetamine


Turbopass


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