Statistical information Moldova 1995Moldova

Map of Moldova | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Moldova in the World
Moldova in the World

World Nomads

Moldova - Introduction 1995
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.

Moldova - Geography 1995
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Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States - European States

Total area total: 33,700 km²
Land: 33,700 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries: total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea


Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50%
Permanent crops: 13%
Meadows and pastures: 9%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 28%

Irrigated land: 2,920 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked

Moldova - People 1995
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Population: 4,489,657 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Noun: Moldovan(s)
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
Note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Languages: Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)
Note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 27% (female 588,155; male 609,372)
15-64 years: 64% (female 1,487,170; male 1,386,293)
65 years and over: 9% (female 258,958; male 159,709) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.93 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.25 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 29.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.22 years
Male: 64.81 years
Female: 71.8 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 96%
Male: 99%
Female: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Moldova - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: none
Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new constitution in 1994

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted NA July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and OSCE documents

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990); election last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President SNEGUR was named executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991
Head of government: Prime Minister Andrei SANGHELI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April 1994 after elections for new legislature); First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent by party NA; seats - (104 total) Agrarian-Democratic Party 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectual Bloc 11, Christian Democratic Popular Front 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CE (guest), CIS, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU
In the us chancery: Suites 329, 333, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 783-3,012
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 783-3,342
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON
From the us embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72
From the us FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Moldova - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, Moldova's economy is primarily based on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, and energy shortages have contributed to sharp production declines since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Moldovan government is making steady progress on an ambitious economic reform agenda, and the IMF has called Moldova a model for the region. As part of its reform efforts, Chisinau has introduced a stable currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed their steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Chisinau appears strongly committed to continuing these reforms in 1995. Meanwhile, privatization of medium and large enterprises got underway in mid-1994 and is expected to pick up speed in 1995. To improve its precarious energy situation, Chisinau reached an agreement with Moscow in December 1994 on gas deliveries for 1995. Gazprom, Russia's national gas company, has agreed to reduce prices for natural gas deliveries to Moldova from the world market price of $80/thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $58/tcm in return for part ownership of the Moldovan pipeline system.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -30% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 40% of GDP; Moldova's principal economic activity; products are vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco

Industries: key products are canned food, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, refined sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -30% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 2.03 million (January 1994)
By occupation agriculture: 34.4%
By occupation industry: 20.1%
By occupation other: 45.5% (1985figures)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Note: budget deficit for 1993 approximately 6% of GDP

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $144 million to outside the FSU countries (1994; over 70% of exports go to FSU countries
Commodoties: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals (1991)
Partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports: $174 million from outside the FSU countries (1994; over 70% of imports are from FSU countries
Commodoties: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer durables
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $300 million (as of 11 December 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei per US$1 - 4.277 (22 December 1994)

Moldova - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.2 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Moldova - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 577,000 telephones; 134 telephones/1000 persons; telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000 unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991)
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international connections to the other former Soviet republics by land line and microwave radio relay through Ukraine, and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; 1 EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Moldova - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, 2% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Moldova - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 8

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 8


Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Moldova - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

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