Statistical information Nepal 1995Nepal

Map of Nepal | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Nepal in the World
Nepal in the World

Nepal - Introduction 1995
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Background: In 1951 the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

Nepal - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia

Total area total: 140,800 km²
Land: 136,800 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north


Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 17%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 13%
Forest and woodland: 33%
Other: 37%

Irrigated land: 9,430 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks

Nepal - People 1995
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Population: 21,560,869 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.44% (1995 est.)

Noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous dialects

Religions: Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
Note: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 43% (female 4,479,950; male 4,692,575)
15-64 years: 55% (female 5,778,107; male 5,994,147)
65 years and over: 2% (female 305,502; male 310,588) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 37.31 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.9 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution (use of contaminated water presents human health risks)
Current issues natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 81.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.09 years
Male: 52.86 years
Female: 53.34 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 26%
Male: 38%
Female: 13%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Nepal - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal
Conventional short form: Nepal

Government type: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural; Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Dependent areas

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Head of government: Prime Minister Man Mohan ADHIKARI (since 30 November 1994)
Chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January 1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
National Council: consists of a 60-member body, 50 appointed by House of Representatives and 10 by the King
House of Representatives: elections last held on 15 November 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3%, NWPP 1%; seats - (205 total) CPN/UML 88, NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3, independents 7; note - the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a multiparty democracy system for the first time in 32 years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Pradeep KHATIWADA
In the us chancery: 2,131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 667-4,550
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sandra L. VOGELGESANG
From the us embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [977] (1) 411,179
From the us FAX: [977] (1) 419,963

Flag descriptionflag of Nepal: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Nepal - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and accounting for half of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign exchange earnings in FY93/94. Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. More than 40% of the population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the government has been encouraging trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify domestic and foreign investment. The government also has been cutting public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil servants. Prospects for foreign trade and investment in the 1990s remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, and susceptibility to natural disaster. The international community provides funding for 70% of Nepal's developmental budget and for 30% of total budgetary expenditures. The government, realizing that attempts to reverse three years of liberalization would jeopardize this vital support, almost certainly will move ahead with its reform program in 1995-96.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette, textile, carpet, cement, and brick production; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Labor force: 8.5 million (1991 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 93%
By occupation services: 5%
By occupation industry: 2%
Note: severe lack of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%; note - there is substantial underemployment (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $455 million
Expenditures: $854 million, including capital expenditures of $427 million (FY93/94 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $593 million (f.o.b., 1993) but does not include unrecorded border trade with India
Commodoties: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
Partners: India, US, Germany, UK

Imports: $899 million (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodoties: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
Partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 49.884 (January 1995), 49.398 (1994), 48.607 (1993), 42.742 (1992), 37.255 (1991), 29.370 (1990)

Nepal - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 920 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 41 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Nepal - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 50,000 telephones (1990); poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international radio communication service is fair; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Nepal - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $36 million, 1.2% of GDP (FY92/93)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Nepal - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 44
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 28
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 10

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 28

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 10






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Nepal - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West

World Nomads

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