Statistical information Peru 1995Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Peru - Introduction 1995
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.


Peru - Geography 1995
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Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Total area total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1.28 million km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 21%
Forest and woodland: 55%
Other: 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia


Peru - People 1995
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Population: 24,087,372 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Peruvian(s)
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Religions: Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35% (female 4,152,520; male 4,296,293)
15-64 years: 61% (female 7,280,287; male 7,378,227)
65 years and over: 4% (female 535,156; male 444,889) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.88 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.84 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Current issues natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Current issues international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 66.07 years
Male: 63.86 years
Female: 68.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 82%
Male: 92%
Female: 74%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Peru - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru

Government type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Note: the 1979 Constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 Constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 Constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Note: Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since NA February 1994) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Congress: elections last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - C90/NM 52.1% of the total vote, UPP 14%, eleven other parties 33.9%; seats - (120 total, when installed on 28 July 1995) C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, (FREPAP) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA Mendoza
In the us chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 833-9,860 through 9,869
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 659-8,124
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.
From the us embassy: corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34,031
From the us telephone: [51] (14) 338,000
From the us FAX: [51] (14) 316,682

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Peru - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed in 1994 in the mining and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP had fallen by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 6% in 1993 and 8.6% in 1994.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8.6% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: 8 million (1992)
By occupation government and other services: 44%
By occupation agriculture: 37%
By occupation industry: 19% (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15%; extensive underemployment (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $2 billion
Expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
Partners: US 19%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany

Imports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 21%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $22.4 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.20 (February 1995), 2.195 (1994),1.988 (1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990)


Peru - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.2 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Peru - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 544,000 telephones; fairly adequate for most requirements
Local: NA
Intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system and 12 domestic satellite links
International: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Peru - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $810 million, about 2.7% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Peru - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 236
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 16
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 11
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 97
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 21
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 77

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 16
15-24 to 2437 m: 11
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 97

Airports with unpaved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2438 m: 21
914 to 1523 m: 77

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine
Total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 90,501 GRT/144,913 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 1
Note: in addition, 4 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals


Peru - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,600 hectares under cultivation in 1994; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing


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