Statistical information Poland 1995Poland

Map of Poland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Poland in the World
Poland in the World

The Fives Hotels

Poland - Introduction 1995
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Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite country following the war but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of an independent trade union 'Solidarity' that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. Complete freedom came with the implosion of the USSR in 1991. A 'shock therapy' program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe boosting hopes for early acceptance to the EU.

Poland - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Total area total: 312,680 km²
Land: 304,510 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border


Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 46%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 13%
Forest and woodland: 28%
Other: 12%

Irrigated land: 1,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Poland - People 1995
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Population: 38,792,442 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Noun: Pole(s)
Adjective: Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Languages: Polish

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23% (female 4,349,467; male 4,559,536)
15-64 years: 66% (female 12,849,300; male 12,698,179)
65 years and over: 11% (female 2,693,407; male 1,642,553) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.34 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.23 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.52 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: forest damage due to air pollution and resulting acid rain; improper means for disposal of large amounts of hazardous and industrial waste; severe water pollution from industrial and municipal sources; severe air pollution results from emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants, which also drifts into Germany and the Netherlands
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.4 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.13 years
Male: 69.15 years
Female: 77.33 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Poland - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Poland
Conventional short form: Poland
Local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
Local short form: Polska

Government type: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo; Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)

Constitution: interim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992 replacing the Communist-imposed constitution of 22 July 1952; new democratic constitution being drafted

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990); election first round held 25 November 1990, second round held 9 December 1990 (next to be held NA November 1995); results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%, Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
Head of government: Prime Minister Jozef OLEKSY (since 6 March 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Roman JAGIELINSKI, Grzegorz KOLODKO, and Aleksander LUCZAK (since NA)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; responsible to the president and the Sejm

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe)
Senate Senat: elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than NA October 1997); seats - (100 total) Communist origin or linked (PSL 34, SLD 37), post-Solidarity parties (UW 6, NSZZ 12, BBWR 2), non-Communist, non-Solidarity (independents 7, unaffiliated 1, vacant 1)
Diet Sejm: elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than NA October 1997); seats - (460 total) Communist origin or linked (SLD 171, PSL 132), post-Solidarity parties (UW 74, UP 41, BBWR 16), non-Communist, non-Solidarity (KPN 22)
Note: 4 seats are constitutionally assigned to ethnic German parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
In the us chancery: 2,640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-3,800 through 3,802
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-6,271
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas Andrew REY
From the us embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, Box 5,010, Unit 1340, APO AE 9,213-1340
From the us telephone: [48] (2) 628-30-41
From the us FAX: [48] (2) 628-82-98
From the us consulates general: Krakow, Poznan

Flag descriptionflag of Poland: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Poland - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Poland continues to make good progress in the difficult transition to a market economy that began on 1 January 1990, when the new democratic government instituted "shock therapy" by decontrolling prices, slashing subsidies, and drastically reducing import barriers. Real GDP fell sharply in 1990 and 1991, but in 1992 Poland became the first country in the region to resume economic growth with a 2.6% increase. Growth increased to 3.8% in 1993 and 5.5% in 1994 - the highest rate in Europe except for Albania. All of the growth since 1991 has come from the booming private sector, which now accounts for at least 55% of GDP, even though privatization of the state-owned enterprises is proceeding slowly and most industry remains in state hands. Industrial production increased 12% in 1994 - led by 50% jumps in the output of motor vehicles, radios and televisions, and pulp and paper - and is now well above the 1990 level. Inflation, which had approached 1,200% annually in early 1990, was down to about 30% in 1994, as the government held the budget deficit to 1.5% of GDP. After five years of steady increases, unemployment has leveled off at about 16% nationwide, although it approaches 30% in some regions. The trade deficit was sharply reduced in 1994, due mainly to increased exports to Western Europe, Poland's main customer. The leftist government elected in September 1993 gets generally good marks from foreign observers for its management of the budget but is often criticized for not moving faster on privatization.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 7% of GDP; 75% of output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed, and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 17.321 million (1993 annual average)
By occupation industry and construction: 32.0%
By occupation agriculture: 27.6%
By occupation trade transport and communications: 14.7%
By occupation government and other: 25.7% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 16.1% (November 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $27.1 billion
Expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: intermediate goods 26.5%, machinery and transport equipment 18.1%, miscellaneous manufactures 16.7%, foodstuffs 9.4%, fuels 8.4% (1993)
Partners: Germany 33.4%, Russia 10.2%, Italy 5.3%, UK 4.3% (1993)

Imports: $18.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment 29.6%, intermediate goods 18.5%, chemicals 13.3%, fuels 12.5%, miscellaneous manufactures 10.1%
Partners: Germany 35.8%, Italy 9.2%, Russia 8.5%, UK 6.6% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $47 billion (1993; note - Poland's Western government creditors promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's $35 billion official debt immediately and to forgive another 20% in 1994; foreign banks agreed in early 1994 to forgive 45% of their $12 billion debt claim

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 2.45 (January 1995; a currency reform on 1 January 1995 replaced 10,000 old zlotys with 1 new zloty), 22,723 (1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626 (1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500 (1990)

Poland - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 124 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,908 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Poland - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 4.9 million telephones; 12.7 phones/100 residents (1994); severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; exchanges are 86% automatic (1991)
Local: NA
Intercity: cable, open wire, and microwave
International: INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Poland - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 50.7 billion zlotych, NA% of GNP (1994 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Poland - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 134
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 30
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 27
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 7
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 18

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 30
15-24 to 2437 m: 27
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 7

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2438 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 18


Pipelines: crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas 4,600 km (1992)



Waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)

Merchant marine
Total: 152 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,405 GRT/3,270,914 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 89, cargo 38, chemical tanker 4, container 7, oil tanker 1, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 4
Note: in addition, Poland owns 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 76,501 DWT that operate under Bahamian, Liberian, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Panamanian, and Cypriot registry

Ports and terminals

Poland - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines for the international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe; producer of precursor chemicals


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