Statistical information Romania 1995Romania

Map of Romania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Romania - Introduction 1995
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Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989.

Romania - Geography 1995
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Total area total: 237,500 km²
Land: 230,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 19%
Forest and woodland: 28%
Other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

Romania - People 1995
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Population: 23,198,330 (July 1995 est.)
Note: the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for that date as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population declined in 1993 by 0.3%
Growth rate: 0.09% (1995 est.)

Noun: Romanian(s)
Adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21% (female 2,413,933; male 2,534,019)
15-64 years: 67% (female 7,737,531; male 7,732,038)
65 years and over: 12% (female 1,604,210; male 1,176,599) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.71 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.88 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Current issues natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.24 years
Male: 69.31 years
Female: 75.35 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 95%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Romania - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Romania
Local long form: none
Local short form: Romania

Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu; Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989); election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
Head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November 1992)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate Senat: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%; seats - (143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2 other 1
House of Deputies Adunarea: Deputatilor: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.0%, CDR 16,4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats - (341 total) PSDR 116, CDR 56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5, other 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (associate members), EBRD, ECE, FAO, G- 9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai Horia BOTEZ
In the us chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-4,846, 4,848, 4,851
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-4,748
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES
From the us embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
From the us mailing address: American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315, Bucharest; APO AE 9,213-1315
From the us telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
From the us FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
From the us branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Romania - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the former command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out in 1993-94. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully since the downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a growing private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of structural reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation rate and eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993 from the drought-reduced harvest of 1992. The economy continued its recovery in 1994, further gains being realized in agriculture, construction, services, and trade. Food supplies are adequate but expensive. Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over the last five years due to reduced levels of public investment. Residents of the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and water services. The slow and painful process of conversion to a more open economy will continue in 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and refining

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1993 est.), accounts for 45% of GDP

Labor force: 11.3 million (1992)
By occupation industry: 38%
By occupation agriculture: 28%
By occupation other: 34% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.9% (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $8.3 billion
Expenditures: $9.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: metals and metal products 17.6%, mineral products 11.9%, textiles 18.5%, electric machines and equipment 8.4%, transport materials 6.5% (1994)
Partners: EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central Europe 14.9%, EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)

Imports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: minerals 21.1%, machinery and equipment 19.7%, textiles 11.5%, agricultural goods 9.2% (1994)
Partners: EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries 22.6%, Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 1,776.00 (January 1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990)

Romania - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 50.8 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,076 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Romania - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: about 2.3 million telephones; 99 telephones/1000 persons; 89% of phone network is automatic; poor service; cable and open wire
Local: NA
Intercity: trunk network is microwave; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990)
International: 1 INTELSAT earth station; new digital international direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Romania - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 1,260 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1994; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Romania - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 156
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 14
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 108

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 14

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 108


Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)



Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Merchant marine
Total: 238 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,528,971 GRT/3,849,943 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 46, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
Note: in addition, Romania owns 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,207,388 DWT that operate under Liberian, Maltese, Cypriot, and Bahamian registry

Ports and terminals

Romania - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route

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