Statistical information Rwanda 1995Rwanda

Map of Rwanda | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Rwanda in the World
Rwanda in the World


Rwanda - Introduction 1995
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Background: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda in April 1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million refugees fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire

Rwanda - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Total area total: 26,340 km²
Land: 24,950 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January; mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east


Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), natural gas, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 29%
Permanent crops: 11%
Meadows and pastures: 18%
Forest and woodland: 10%
Other: 32%

Irrigated land: 40 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

Rwanda - People 1995
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Population: 8,605,307 (July 1995 est.)
Note: the demographic estimates were prepared before civil strife, starting in April 1994, set in motion substantial and continuing population changes
Growth rate: 2.67% (1995 est.)

Noun: Rwandan(s)
Adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used in commercial centers

Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and other 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 51% (female 2,184,549; male 2,201,049)
15-64 years: 47% (female 2,034,278; male 1,968,298)
65 years and over: 2% (female 126,255; male 90,878) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.52 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 21.82 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)
Note: since April 1994, more than one million refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Rwanda and crossed into Zaire, Burundi, and Tanzania; close to 350,000 Rwandan Tutsis who fled civil strife in earlier years are returning to Rwanda and a few of the recent Hutu refugees are going home despite the danger of doing so; the ethnic violence continues and in 1995 could produce further refugee flows as well as deter returns

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion
Current issues natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Zaire
Current issues international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 118.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 39.33 years
Male: 38.5 years
Female: 40.19 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 8.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 50%
Male: 64%
Female: 37%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Rwanda - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
Conventional short form: Rwanda
Local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
Local short form: Rwanda

Government type: republic; presidential system
Note: after genocide and civil war in April 1994, the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front, in July 1994, took power and formed a new government

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture in French; plural - NA, singular - prefegitura in Kinyarwanda; Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 18 June 1991

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Pasteur BIZIMUNGU (since 19 July 1994); took office following the siezure of the government by the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front and the exiling of interim President Dr. Theodore SINDIKUBWABO; no future election dates have been set
Head of government: Prime Minister Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU (since the siezure of power by the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front in July 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Development Council: (Conseil National de Developpement) elections last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA 1995); results - MRND was the only party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Joseph W. MUTABOBA
In the us chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 232-2,882
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-4,544
From the us note: US Embassy closed indefinitely
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David P. RAWSON
From the us embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
From the us mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
From the us telephone: [250] 756 01 through 03
From the us FAX: [250] 721 28

Flag descriptionflag of Rwanda: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Rwanda - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Rwanda is a poor African nation suffering bitterly from ethnic-based civil war. Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea make up 80%-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion continue to create problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only 17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee/tea exports and foreign aid. Weak international prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in October 1990. Ethnic-based insurgency since 1990 has devastated wide areas, especially in the north, and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. A peace accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the fighting, but massive resumption of civil warfare in April 1994 in the capital city Kigali and elsewhere has been taking thousands of lives and severely affecting short-term economic prospects. The economy suffers massively from failure to maintain the infrastructure, looting, neglect of important cash crops, and lack of health care facilities.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -8% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cash crops - coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums; main food crops - bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: -2.2% (1991; accounts for 17% of GDP

Labor force: 3.6 million
By occupation agriculture: 93%
By occupation governmentand services: 5%
By occupation industry and commerce: 2%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $350 million
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $44 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
Partners: Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Partners: US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $873 million (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 144.3 (3rd quarter 1994), 144.25 (1993), 133.35 (1992), 125.14 (1991), 82.60 (1990)

Rwanda - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 190 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Rwanda - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones; telephone system does not provide service to the general public but is intended for business and government use
Local: NA
Intercity: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network depends on wire and high frequency radio
International: international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) and 1 SYMPHONIE earth station in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Rwanda - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $112.5 million, 7% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Rwanda - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 7
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 1





Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Rwanda - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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