Statistical information Saudi Arabia 1995Saudi%20Arabia

Map of Saudi Arabia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Saudi Arabia in the World
Saudi Arabia in the World


Saudi Arabia - Introduction 1995
top of page

Background: In 1902 Abdul al-Aziz Ibn SAUD captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian peninsula. In the 1930s the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population aquifer depletion and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.

Saudi Arabia - Geography 1995
top of page

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceMiddle East

Total area total: 1,960,582 km²
Land: 1,960,582 km²
Comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 4,415 km, Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 39%
Forest and woodland: 1%
Other: 59%

Irrigated land: 4,350 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

Saudi Arabia - People 1995
top of page

Population: 18,729,576 (July 1995 est.)
Note: a 1992 census gives the number of Saudi citizens as 12,304,835 and the number of residents who are not citizens as 4,624,459
Growth rate: 3.68% (1995 est.)

Noun: Saudi(s)
Adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslim 100%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 43% (female 3,952,573; male 4,065,224)
15-64 years: 55% (female 4,078,001; male 6,219,737)
65 years and over: 2% (female 203,372; male 210,669) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.78 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.54 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.56 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
Current issues natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms
Current issues international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 48.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.5 years
Male: 66.79 years
Female: 70.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 62%
Male: 73%
Female: 48%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Saudi Arabia - Government 1995
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
Local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqah, singular - mintaqat; Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; dominated by royal family members appointed by the king

Legislative branch: a consultative council comprised of 60 members and a chairman who are appointed by the King for a term of four years

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
In the us chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-3,800
In the us consulates general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond E. MABUS, Jr.
From the us embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
From the us mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 61,307, Riyadh; International Mail:P. O. Box 94,309, Riyadh 11,693; APO AE 9,803-1307
From the us telephone: [966] (1) 488-3,800
From the us FAX: [966] (1) 482-4,364
From the us consulates general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag descriptionflag of Saudi%20Arabia: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side; green is the traditional color of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Saudi Arabia - Economy 1995
top of page

Economy overview: This is a well-to-do oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. About 46% of GDP comes from the private sector. Economic (as well as political) ties with the US are especially strong. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world (26% of the proved total), ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic activity. Roughly four million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and banking sectors. For about a decade, Saudi Arabia's domestic and international outlays have outstripped its income, and the government has cut its foreign assistance and is beginning to rein in domestic programs. For 1995, the country looks for improvement in oil prices and will continue its policies of restraining public spending and encouraging non-oil exports.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; subsidized by government; products - wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching self-sufficiency in food

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction, fertilizer, plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 20% (1991 est.), accounts for 35% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 5 million-6 million
By occupation government: 34%
By occupation industry andoil: 28%
By occupation services: 22%
By occupation agriculture: 16%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $39 billion
Expenditures: $50 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $39.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum and petroleum products 92%
Partners: US 20%, Japan 18%, Singapore 5%, France 5%, South Korea 5% (1992)

Imports: $28.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, motor vehicles, textiles
Partners: US 21%, Japan 14%, UK 11%, Germany 8%, Italy 6%, France 5% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est., includes short-term trade credits)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since late 1986), 3.7033 (1986)

Saudi Arabia - Energy 1995
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 46 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,430 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Saudi Arabia - Communication 1995
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,624,000 telephones; modern system
Local: NA
Intercity: extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic cable systems
International: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; earth stations - 5 INTELSAT (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 ARABSAT, and 1 INMARSAT

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Saudi Arabia - Military 1995
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $17.2 billion, 13.8% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Saudi Arabia - Transportation 1995
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 211
With paved runways over 3047 m: 30
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 12
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 22
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 21
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 73
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 43

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 30
2438 to 3047 m: 12
15-24 to 2437 m: 22
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 21

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2438 m: 73
914 to 1523 m: 43


Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)




Merchant marine
Total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 855,452 GRT/1,233,477 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 5, container 3, liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 22, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 7

Ports and terminals

Saudi Arabia - Transnational issues 1995
top of page

Disputes international: large section of boundary with Yemen not defined; status of boundary with UAE not final; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and cocaine


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it