Statistical information Serbia and Montenegro 1995Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

Map of Serbia and Montenegro | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Serbia and Montenegro in the World
Serbia and Montenegro in the World

World Nomads

Serbia and Montenegro - Introduction 1995
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Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by various countries including the U.S.; the U.S. view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation. Recently the Kosovo region has seen disturbances by groups demanding its independence.

Serbia and Montenegro - Geography 1995
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Total area total: 102,350 km²
Land: 102,136 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Kentucky
Note: Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 km² making it slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 km² and a land area of 13,724 km² making it slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall; central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast


Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 30%
Permanent crops: 5%
Meadows and pastures: 20%
Forest and woodland: 25%
Other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Serbia and Montenegro - People 1995
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Total population: 11,101,833 (July 1995 est.)
Montenegro: 708,248 (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: 10,393,585 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate Montenegro: 0.79% (1995 est.)
Growth rate Serbia: 0.51% (1995 est.)

Noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
Adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,095,121; male 1,173,224)
15-64 years: 66% (female 3,431,823; male 3,483,066)
65 years and over: 12% (female 699,488; male 510,863) (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate
Montenegro: 0.79% (1995 est.)
Serbia: 0.51% (1995 est.)

Birth rate
Montenegro: 14.39 births/1000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 14.15 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate
Montenegro: 5.7 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 8.72 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate
Montenegro: -0.78 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: -0.36 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Current issues natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current issues international agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Montenegro: 9.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)
Serbia: 18.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
Total population: 73.94 years
Male: 71.4 years
Female: 76.68 years (1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***

Total fertility rate
Montenegro: 1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)
Serbia: 2 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Serbia and Montenegro - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
Local long form: none
Local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina; and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - SFRY)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990); Federal Assembly elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
Head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995)
Cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly
Chamber of Republics: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin) seats by party NA
Chamber of Citizens: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (138 total, 108 Serbian, 30 Montenegrin) SPS 47, SRS 34, Depos 20, DPSCG 17, DS 5, SP 5, NS 4, DZVM 3, other 3

Judicial branch: Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation
In the us: US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rudolf V. PERINA
From the us embassy: address NA, Belgrade
From the us mailing address: Box 5,070, Unit 1310, APO AE 9,213-1310
From the us telephone: [381] (11) 645,655
From the us FAX: [381] (11) 645,221

Flag descriptionflag of Serbia%20and%20Montenegro: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Serbia and Montenegro - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Serbia and Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has dropped sharply, particularly in 1993. First, like the other former Yugoslav republics, it depended on its sister republics for large amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the imposition of economic sanctions by the UN in 1992. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1994. Reliable statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate of $1,000 per capita in 1994 is extremely rough. Output in 1994 seems to have leveled off after the plunge in 1993.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes, and rice

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 2,640,909
By occupation industry mining: 40% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: more than 40% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $NA
Commodoties: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia exported machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics, Italy, Germany, other EC, the FSU countries, East European countries, US

Imports: $NA
Commodoties: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia imported machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials including coking coal for the steel industry
Partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics, the FSU countries, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East European countries, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.2 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 102.6 (February 1995 black market rate)

Serbia and Montenegro - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 34 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,400 kWh (1994 est.)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Serbia and Montenegro - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 700,000 telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Serbia and Montenegro - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: 245 billion dinars, 4% to 6% of GDP (1992 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Serbia and Montenegro - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 54
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 24
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 24

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 14


Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km



Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine
Montenegro: total 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 543,511 GRT/891,664 DWT (controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners)
Ships by type: bulk 2
Note: all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag
Serbia: total 2 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,471 GRT/212,742 DWT (controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)

Ports and terminals

Serbia and Montenegro - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia - Muslims seeking autonomy; disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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