Statistical information Somalia 1995Somalia

Map of Somalia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Somalia in the World
Somalia in the World

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Somalia - Introduction 1995
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Background: Intermittent civil war has been a fact of life in Somalia since 1977. In 1991 the northern portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south it has not been recognized by any foreign government. Beginning in 1993 a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions but when the UN withdrew in 1995 having suffered significant casualties order still had not been restored.


Somalia - Geography 1995
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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total area total: 637,660 km²
Land: 627,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:200 nm

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 46%
Forest and woodland: 14%
Other: 38%

Irrigated land: 1,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal


Somalia - People 1995
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Population: 7,347,554 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 15.58% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Somali(s)
Adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45% (female 1,653,175; male 1,650,377)
15-64 years: 51% (female 1,845,886; male 1,932,012)
65 years and over: 4% (female 138,264; male 127,840) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 15.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.53 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 123.62 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Current issues natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer
Current issues international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 119.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.74 years
Male: 55.48 years
Female: 56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.13 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 24%
Male: 36%
Female: 14%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Somalia - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Somalia
Former: Somali Republic

Government type: none

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka; Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of anarchy, marked by inter-clan fighting and random banditry

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly
People's Assembly Golaha Shacbiga: not functioning

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (not functioning)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
From the us note: the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in January 1991; Ambassador Daniel SIMPSON, ambassador to Kenya, represents US interests in Somalia
From the us liaison office: US Embassy, Nairobi, Kenya
From the us address: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
From the us mailing address: P.O. Box 30,137, Unit 64,100, Nairobi or APO AE 9,831
From the us telephone: [254] (2) 334,141
From the us FAX: [254] (2) 340,838

Flag descriptionflag of Somalia: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Somalia - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood make up about 70% of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. The greatly increased political turmoil of 1991-93 has resulted in a substantial drop in agricultural output, with widespread famine. In 1994 economic conditions stabilized in the countryside but may turn worse in 1995 if civil strife intensifies after the UN withdrawal.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats; crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil strife; fishing potential largely unexploited

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down) (1994)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
By occupation pastoralnomad: 70%
By occupation agriculture government trading fishing handicrafts andother: 30%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $58 million (1990 est.)
Commodoties: bananas, live animals, fish, hides
Partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $249 million (1990 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
Partners: US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.9 billion (1989)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - approximately 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989)


Somalia - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Somalia - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones; the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems (1993)
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Somalia - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Somalia - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 76
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 14
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 16
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 33

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 14

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2438 m: 16
914 to 1523 m: 33

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,529 GRT/6,892 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1

Ports and terminals


Somalia - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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